Non-State Actors and Criminal Networks

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NGO refers to a range of varied organizations. NGO as a terminology was formulated by the UN. In most cases, it is associated with organizations that are working independently without government influence or guidance. Such organizations are not driven by profit objectives. “The World Bank defines NGOs as private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide and undertake community development” (Willets, 2011, p. 23).

NGOS Legal Issues

The legal form that guides NGOs formation and scope of their operations is designed differently in various nations. This depends on legislations instituted in a certain nation. Nonetheless, there are four units of NGOs known to be in operation worldwide. These groups of NGOS include non profit driven firms, voluntary associations, trusts and also foundations. Apart from the Red Cross, the other categories of NGOs are not answerable to the international law. Each aspect of the NGOs is governed by specific regulations. Therefore, to avoid contradicting the laws, NGOs should have sound knowledge of the laws. The regulations related to NGOs include those that guide their registration and management (Bell, 2006, p. 44).

A Just War

There has been much debate concerning the validity of war. War in most cases has profound outcomes to the human race and the environment as a whole. Those who subscribe to this contention are categorized under what is termed Just War Belief. For instance, it was felt by many individuals that the First World War was justified on the basis of containing the Nazi Germany.

In recent times, the involvement of the West in the Gulf war was justified by the fact that it was aimed at dislodging Saddam Hussein from Kuwait. “One of the Just War traditions includes not killing unarmed people – for example women, children, the old, civilians and soldiers who have surrendered” (Elshtain, 2010, p. 56). A just war endeavors to mitigate the obliteration that arises from war. This is achieved by distinguishing right form wrong. “For example, a defensive intent is necessary and sufficient in the face of a threatened invasion which could result in the loss of many innocent lives” (Elshtain, 2010, p. 234). In this case, it makes individuals to be conscientious objectors.

Just War Opponents

Those who object just war believe that in a war event, no party involved is able to fully honor the guidelines of a just war. For instance in World War Two, Hitler contradicted just war principles by gassing millions of Jews. Nonetheless, the British also faced criticism for having bombed German cities, which never had any bearing to the war. Moreover, Hiroshima bombings majorly had extreme outcomes to the innocent civilians. The second contention that opposes a just war is that no neutral referee exists that can penalize those who contradict just war principles during war. The Just War concept does not recognize the prevalent conviction that murder in any situation is wrong. Besides, the outcome of any war cannot be predicted. “For instance, nobody can tell in advance if a particular war will bring more good than evil or that its methods will be proportionate to its results” (Walzer, 2006, p. 345). In my view, we can have a Just War provided the motives of fighting are not contradicting the Just War guidelines.

Private Military Companies

Private Military firms are increasingly gaining relevance. Such firms have been recognized as key instruments for combating crime in territories where conflicts are prevalent. Private Militaries were deployed in the Balkans, Afghanistan and in Sierra Leone. “However, their increased use has sparked much controversy, and revelations regarding both the successes and failures of the industry raise questions about its role in moderating conflict worldwide” (Ortiz, 2010, p. 98). The effectiveness of private Militaries in handling conflicts can be boosted by ensuring that they are employed in a better organized manner. When they are utilized in supporting a larger plan, they can effectively contribute toward restoring peace. “Conversely, what has been demonstrated time and again is that when private contractors are put into action without clear-cut objectives they harm the overall ability of a peace operation.” (Ortiz, 2010, p. 102).


Bell, D. 2006. Ethics in Action: The Ethical Challenges of International Human Rights Nongovernmental Organizations. London: Wiley.

Elshtain, J. 2010. Just War Theory. New York: Prentice Hall.

Ortiz, J. 2010. Private Armed Forces and Global Security: A Guide to the Issues. New York: Praeger.

Walzer, M. 2006. Just And Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument With Historical Illustrations. Washington. DC: Basic Books.

Willets, P. 2011. Non-Governmental Organizations in World Politics: The Construction of Global Governance. New York: Routledge.

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DemoEssays. "Non-State Actors and Criminal Networks." January 1, 2023.