The European Union is an active and influential actor in international relations. Its political activities are closely linked to supranational bodies. Their existence indicates that the EU is not just an economic but also a political association. The various areas of their activities depend significantly on countries outside the Union, as they require their cooperation or affect interests. As a result, domestic directions also affect substantially foreign policy. Area of freedom, security and justice (AFSJ) is among critical areas of EU policy, covering issues in the field of persons’ freedom of movement, internal security, and common judicial space. Despite their internal focus, they define external threats as the main ones for security issues, which tie them to foreign policy.
One example of a threat is the migration crisis of 2015. A simple way to enter European states gave the basis for strengthening refugees’ flow, which countries could not foresee. These events led to economic difficulties and social tension among the population and demonstrated the EU’s weakness in the international field. Another example of a threat closely linked to both internal and external security is terrorism. It spreads rapidly over the world and has no boundaries. Moreover, terrorists still have support among the population that has been born and lives in European countries. To solve this problem, joint measures with other countries are applied, as well as a policy of building friendly relations with neighbors and governments, which may pose a threat.
Discrimination, drugs, organized crime, illegal migration, human trafficking, terrorism, and other phenomena pose a threat to the EU’s internal security. Most of them come from outside, and therefore their neutralization beyond Europe requires cooperation with other countries. Friendly policies and relationships with various actors in international relations also play a significant role in preventing threats. However, some policy aspects, such as easy migration, have demonstrated their application’s possible negative effects.