The U. S. Political System
The U. S. political system is widely understood through two major political parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. It is also essential to mention that other minor parties shape the political context of the country. The largest minor parties include the Green and Libertarian parties.
The Democratic Party
The Democratic Party was founded in 1828 by followers of Andrew Jackson. It is one of the oldest mass political parties in the world. Throughout the 19th century, democrats supported and did not oppose slavery, as it was politically beneficial for the party. However, during the 20th century, their ideology underwent radical changes and started to fight for the civil rights of minorities, progressive ideas, and organized labor (“Democratic Party,” 2020). Nowadays, the party is a symbol of liberal ideology and is considered as the left-wing.
The Republican Party
The Republican Party was founded in the 1850s as the coalition against the extension of slavery. Throughout the 19th century, the party was fighting for slavery’s abolition. From the 20th century until nowadays, the political party is widely associated with conservative ideology, which implies minimum government intervention in the economy, reduced taxes, and traditional views on social issues (“Ideologies of political parties,” n. d.). The party is highly decentralized, and consequently, its members often represent different opinions.
The Green Party
The Green Party in the U. S. was founded in the 1980s and was inspired by Greens’ success in European countries. Today it is the fourth-largest organized political party in the USA. It stands not only for environmental issues but also for social justice, gender equality, minorities rights, nonviolence, and anti-war values (Bawden, 2014). The party is perceived as left-wing or eco-socialist in terms of its position on the political spectrum.
The Libertarian Party
The Libertarian Party was founded in 1971 in Colorado, and it is the third-largest party in the country. As the name suggests, the party shares the principles of libertarianism. Sometimes it is considered as one of the branches of liberalism. The party protects the rights of an individual and highlights the importance of the individual and his or her right to oppose powers of traditional services and even of the government (“Libertarian Party”, n. d.). Regardless of the fact, that the party represents only a small part of the population, it still shapes the political context.
New York State’s Government
New York State’s government also consists of three branches as the federal government. It includes the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, and the Executive Branch. The Legislative Branch of the State reminds the Federal structure: it is divided into two chambers: a 62-member Senate and 150-member Assembly (“State Government Structure,” n. d.). The Judicial branch of New York State includes several courts with different jurisdictions and the Court of Appeals (the highest court). The same system can be observed on the Federal level: Federal courts and the highest Supreme Court. Concerning the Executive Branch, New York State has 20 different departments responsible for different areas, including education, health, labor, financial services, and others. The Federal structure of the executive branch is represented by President, Vice president, and the Cabinet.
Concerning members of the State government selected, there are only four government officers that are directly elected, including the Attorney General, the State Comptroller, the Governor, and Lieutenant Governor (“State Government Structure”, n. d.). Heads of the State departments and agencies of the executive branch are chosen by the Governor.
The New York Constitution and the United States Constitution cover several similar provisions. However, it should be stated that the New York Constitution protects more kinds of rights than the U. S. Constitution does. Criminal procedural rights, religious liberty, freedom of speech, and the press, and immigrants’ rights are greatly extended (Fein & Ayers, 2017). For instance, considering extended religious rights, the New York Court of Appeals takes into account Muslim prisoners’ rights by freeing them from searches performed by women.
Democratic Party. (2020). Web.
Fein, S. N., & Ayers, A. B. (2017). Protections in the New York State Constitution beyond the Federal Bill of Rights. Web.
Ideologies of political parties. (n. d.). Web.
Libertarian Party. (n. d.). Web.
State Government Structure (n. d.). Web.