Gill, C., Weisburd, D., Telep, C. W., Vitter, Z., & Bennett, T. (2014). Community-oriented policing to reduce crime, disorder and fear and increase satisfaction and legitimacy among citizens: A systematic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(4), 399-428.
This article provides a thorough study of such phenomena as community-oriented policing (COP). The authors investigated many works tracking changes before and after the establishment of the community policing strategy. Thus, they studied the effectiveness of this strategy measuring several indicators – the level of crime and disorder, satisfaction of citizens with the activity of the police, and others. The results presented in the article suggest that community-oriented policing has a beneficial effect on only a few of the studied aspects. For example, police satisfaction among society has improved by 78,3 percent, but the crime rate has hardly changed.
It is a reliable source of information, as it is written by authoritative authors and published in a journal that is strict about the reviewing of the works presented in it. The authors of this research are professors in criminology, thoroughly working on police work, which is confirmed by many of their other works. The presented material is of interest mostly to researchers on community-oriented policing. The results presented in the report clearly illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the strategy, which will be useful for those who are looking for new ways to improve the efficiency and quality of law enforcement bodies.
This article is an essential source for the study of the topic. One of its advantages is that it describes the background of the problem, allowing assessment of the strategy development and the reasons for its appearance. Moreover, the received results of the analysis are also valuable. They make it possible to assess whether community-oriented policing has solved the tasks for which it was created and which aspects should be changed in the future. This source is one of the main for the research, as it presents all the information about the studied strategy and its effectiveness.
Leventakis, G., & Haberfeld, M. R. (Eds.). (2018). Community-oriented policing and technological innovations. Springer International Publishing.
This book discusses the use of technology in community-oriented policing. In particular, several chapters are devoted to social media, as they can play a significant role in detecting violations, suspicion of activity, and even terrorism. Moreover, technology will make it easier to respond quickly and analyze incidents, which will significantly improve police work quality. It is essential to note that the use of technology in modern community-oriented policing can help build the trust of society in law enforcement agencies. In this way, citizens can be aware of important events and details of the work of the police.
The book allows the researchers to assess the world experience of using technologies in policing, as it contains articles by European and American authors. The editors, Georgios Leventakis and M. R. Haberfeld are experts in safety, law, and criminology, suggesting the source’s reliability. The book may be of interest to sociologists and researchers interested in community policing issues. It will also be useful to authorities that support this strategy in their communities. Law enforcement agencies can find ways and directions for the development of their activities and improving effectiveness.
The source is valuable for the work as it reveals an essential aspect of modern days – the application of technologies in the studied field of community policing. The current society, as the individual in it, is inseparable from the different information and telecommunication technologies. The development of computer technology, mobile communication, and various digital innovations encourages and sometimes forces people to use them. They play a critical role in intensifying the transmission, exchange, and receipt of information during the prevention, suppression, and detection of crimes and will only further increase their influence and importance in the activities of the police.
Hough, L. M. (2016). Community-oriented policing: Hiring in the spirit of service. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 9(3), 573-582.
The presented article reveals another aspect of the problem of contemporary community-oriented policing. Properly selected personnel is the main component of the success of any work. For this reason, regardless of how well a specific strategy of action is formulated, its effectiveness depends only on the professionalism and personal qualities of the employees. The article identifies the main components of community policing and what characteristics a person should have to serve in this sphere. In the research, the expert also emphasized the place and role of psychology in helping the police.
The author of the report is Leaetta M. Hough, a Ph.D., a successful and well-known researcher in the field of candidate evaluation for various workplaces, the president of several psychological organizations. Her considerable scientific experience shows the reliability of the source. The article will be useful not only to researchers to expand their knowledge of community-oriented policing but also to managers who are involved in the recruitment of staff for law enforcement agencies.
The value of this source for exploring contemporary community policing is that it draws attention to the importance of staff. The professionalism of the police is essential in following the studied strategy. The image and openness of police communication with society depend on employees. Not all people are able to arouse trust and favor; thus, it is essential to choose candidates competently.
Wade, L. M. (2017). Social unrest and community-oriented policing services. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 27(6), 636-638.
The author of the article expresses his opinion on ways how a community-oriented policing strategy can be applied in the fight against such an issue as social unrest. The problem of public disturbances poses a severe threat to the peaceful life of the population. Moreover, it claims the lives and health of law enforcement officials. The article states that many riots may arise from misunderstandings between the society and the police – that is the reason, which community policing seeks to avoid. The expert talks about various ways and means of solving this problem, for example – closer and more productive cooperation with schools. Thus, he believes, mutual respect and understanding can be nurtured.
Dr. Lee M. Wade –the author of the discussed research–is a specialist in the study of law enforcement bodies’ activities. Many of his works focus on police cooperation with the public. For this reason, his opinion on the topic can be seen as authoritative. The article can be of interest to both researchers and police officers, who are developing public relations strategies. Thus, they will be able to take into consideration past mistakes and create new ideas. In studying various topics, it is necessary to bear in mind not only dry facts but also authoritative opinions. For this reason, Wade’s article is valuable as a source for conducting the research.
Lee, H. D., Kim, D., Woo, Y., & Reyns, B. W. (2019). Determinants of citizen support for community-oriented policing. Police Practice and Research, 20(1), 34-47.
The article discusses what social factors influence the primary goal of community-oriented policing – building trust relations with citizens. Public support for police activities can significantly affect the quality of their work. It will have a beneficial influence on the conduct of investigations, and of course, on the maintenance of order and peace itself. However, creating a positive image is a complex task that requires studying the audience and the qualities that raise public trust. Moreover, the research found that the level of confidence in COP among women was higher. The quality of education also influences the favor to the police, but, for example, age does not affect.
Contributors to the article are two doctoral students and two professors in the Departments of Criminal Justice of several American universities. The source in which the work is published is a substantial international journal, which gives grounds for trusting the article. The intended audience is other researchers and individuals interested in the successful implementing of the community-oriented policing strategy. The data presented can be helpful for the development of fruitful relations between the police and society. The definition of determinants affecting public opinion about policing is important for the study of the topic. It allows a more comprehensive study of the problem and understanding not only the police but also the society’s view better.
Przeszlowski, K. S., & Crichlow, V. J. (2018). An exploratory assessment of community-oriented policing implementation, social disorganization and crime in America. Social Sciences, 7(3), 35.
The main goal of the implementation of the community-oriented policy strategy is trust relations with society. However, the question of how the studied approach has affected crime rates remains open. The authors of the article direct their attention to this aspect of the problem. They found that there was almost no difference between the periods before and after the introduction of such policing in the crime rate. Moreover, the research suggested reviewing some points of community policing philosophy to improve the situation. The importance of the article for the work is that it highlights a narrow aspect of the problem – the level of crime. Since many sources touch on this issue only briefly, focusing on the trust of society and police image, this research can fill many gaps in information.
Journal of Social Sciences is an international journal publishing only peer-reviewed articles on various topics. The authors are representatives of the School of Criminology & Criminal Justice and have several publications in this direction. The text of the work is well organized and understandable, making it a reliable and convenient source for research. The article is intended for researchers to look for areas of future work, and for those interested in ensuring that community-oriented policing strategies also produce results in reducing crime rates.
Goldberg, K., & Christopher, K. (2019). Community Oriented Policing: Security in the Domestic Counter-Terrorism Environment. Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences, 31(1), 114-124.
The main features of the modern world are multiculturalism, globalization, migration, and others. All these factors create challenges for the people’s security and change the way law enforcement bodies should act. The authors of this article are looking for ways to support counter-terrorism activities through community-oriented policing. It involves an understanding of cultural diversity and tolerance of the staff. Moreover, the authors propose directions for future research that will determine how community-oriented policing can affect business in migrant communities. Such actions will be useful in finding additional ways to build trust between police and citizens.
The journal, in which the article is published, is produced by The American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences, with a rigorous process of professional reviewing. It indicates that the presented source is trustworthy and can be used for the research. The target audience is all people interested in community-oriented policing as a research direction and strategy for implementation. Its value to the study is that the article considers not quite a typical aspect of community-oriented policing. The fact that this strategy can play a role in counter-terrorism activities is quite unusual and deserves additional attention from various researchers.
Makin, D. A., & Marenin, O. (2017). Let’s dance: Variations of partnerships in community policing. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 11(4), 421-436.
David Makin and Otwin Marenin are representatives of the Criminal Justice and Criminology Department at Washington State University. Their research aims to investigate the work of the community-oriented policing strategy and its dependence on various types of partnerships. They concluded that the introduction of the COP strategy, specifically in police regulations, is more accessible than its use as a system of police work with society. The intended audience of the article is scientists and stakeholders who are concerned about the work of the police within the COP strategy.
Often, citizens do not have enough incentive for cooperation and partnership. Moreover, it may seem to them that additional work without pay is imposed on people. However, when the state does not protect its inhabitants well enough, they tend to create their own protection system, in which case the police will be an excellent assistant. They also point to the importance of officers’ serious approach to the implementation of the strategy – they need to understand citizens, respect their culture, and much more. However, the real picture indicates only a symbolic partnership – blogging or a common survey. In this case, the idea of a partnership within the COP framework is called into question.
Boettke, P. J., Lemke, J. S., & Palagashvili, L. (2016). Re-evaluating community policing in a polycentric system. Journal of Institutional Economics, 12(2), 305-325.
The authors set themselves the goal to fill in the gaps in knowledge about the work of the community-oriented policing strategy. Their task is also to identify and understand the motives that are necessary for the work of the police and citizens. Moreover, they conduct an analysis of the interaction in the protection of society between representatives of various levels of government – local, state, and federal. In their work, authors use theoretical methods of research – analysis, and synthesis. Some results of the research are provided in schedules, in particular the funding provided to the police by the federal authorities. This work will be interesting to researchers of the issues of relations between the officers and society, and those who can contribute to improving its effectiveness.
Making a conclusion, the authors, based on the belief that citizens can be self-governing, argue that centralizing the police can impede the practical cooperation of officers with societies. The fact that the main decision-makers in solving important law enforcement issues related to many police departments are a small number of representatives at the federal level harms the work of the police. This is happening because they cannot take into account all the factors and costs that will affect different communities. Moreover, the accountability of officers to external leaders, rather than to the society in which they serve, can lead to negative consequences in the form of ill-treatment of citizens.
Diehr, A. J., & McDaniel, J. T. (2018). Lack of community-oriented policing practices partially mediates the relationship between racial residential segregation and “black-on-black” homicide rates. Preventive medicine, 112, 179-184.
Aaron J. Diehr and Justin T. McDaniel, in their work, set out the task to find out the extent of the influence of community-oriented policing and residential segregation on intraracial killings of the African-American population. As a result, they found that all three components are closely related. Despite the fact that today, discrimination must be eradicated from society, some of its manifestations are still present.
The article proves that segregation increases intraracial black homicide rates. In places where the community-oriented policing strategy works, this indicator is lower than in those where it is less common. The authors emphasize the significance of these conclusions to the ongoing debate about the issue of the effectiveness and relevance of close communication between the officers of the police and the people they defend. Methods such as data collection and statistical analysis were applied in the study, and results for ease of perception are presented in the map, tables, and figures. The intended audience of the article is people interested in solving discriminatory problems in the country.
Chriss, J. J. (2016). Beyond community policing: From early American beginnings to the 21st century. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis.
Public order issues are vital for any country and its effective functioning. If there is no law and order, then the state itself disappears as an organization of society. The goal of James J. Chriss is to describe in his book how police activity was born and developed in England and America, and how police establish relations with the community. The study covers the period from the 1830s to the modern days. The author uses the method of information collection for his analysis and applies the general sociological theory. With his book, the author made a significant contribution to understanding the police’s modern functioning through its history. The book is a subject of interest to scientists and students studying strategies for the functioning of law enforcement agencies.
Tillyer, R. (2018). Assessing the impact of community-oriented policing on the arrest. Justice Quarterly, 35(3), 526-555.
Community-oriented policing plays a significant role in the coordination of police work. Many studies have already researched its impact on the citizen’s satisfaction with law enforcement agencies and the sense of security within the community. Tillyer’s goal is to check test another hypothesis, which claims that such a strategy increases the likelihood of arrests. To do this, he used multilevel analysis to process data on various incidents. The analysis progress is displayed in tables to improve its perception. Researchers and decision-makers on policing cases can find this article interesting and useful for themselves.
Concluding, the author emphasizes that the police, while carrying out their activities, should strive to ensure public confidence in them and to support citizens. The study found that if the implementation of the COP strategy in a particular police station is limited, beneficial results should not be expected. For example, only one department has been created, or only a few of the prescribed rules are implemented. However, if the police adopt the COP strategy as the main one and fulfill most of its requirements, the likelihood of arrests for cruel crimes can increase. Thus, the benefits of such an approach are obtained by those policemen who believed in the effectiveness of community-oriented policing and made efforts to implement it.
McCarthy, M. M., Porter, L. E., Townsley, M., & Alpert, G. P. (2019). The effect of community-oriented policing on police use of force: does community matter?. Policing: An International Journal.
The most important task for the police is to protect the life and property of citizens, and the first practical goal is to prevent crimes. The mission of protecting public order and ensuring public safety is, to a greater extent, carried out by the police with measures to prevent and suppress illegal actions. However, situations often arise in which police officers are forcibly or, in case of abuse of authority, deliberately use force. This problem requires a lot of attention since citizens can die because of the illegal use of force. This affects the increase in the level of citizens’ distrust of the police. The purpose of this article’s authors is to check whether the introduction of the COP strategy can reduce the number of cases of force usage by representatives of law enforcement agencies. The main research method is the gathering and analysis of information on crimes and arrests with the use of force.
After conducting the study, it was found that results differ for areas with high and low crime rates. In cases where cooperation with society and the provision of consultations to citizens achieved a high level in an area with a more significant crime rate, the number of cases of use of force decreased. In districts, where a crime is not a common event, changes are not so noticeable. It is possible that in such neighborhoods, the use of force is not frequent at all.
Stein, R. E., & Griffith, C. (2017). Resident and police perceptions of the neighborhood: Implications for community policing. Criminal justice policy review, 28(2), 139-154.
Effective communication between police and citizens is the assurance of the successful performance of the community-oriented policing strategy. To ensure such fruitful cooperation, an essential factor is the understanding and equal perceptions of the situation in a particular society. Using the method of descriptive analysis, the authors investigate differences in the police and citizens’ knowledge of the same areas and factors that have an influence on them. The study highlights the importance of understanding between officers and the people they protect, which is why the target audience, in addition to researchers, is the representatives of law enforcement agencies themselves.
The authors concluded that considering the importance of the understanding between the police and citizens, and the resources that each side can use, officers should play a leading role in building relationships. During the study, differences were found between the perception of the situation in society by the police and inhabitants. Most often, police officers tend to represent a more favorable situation than it is in reality. Moreover, the authors note a higher level of mutual understanding and cooperation in areas with white populations. For this reason, the article indicates the need for more substantial cultural training of law enforcement officers. They also need to get rid of racial prejudice since the demographics of the area significantly affect its perception and understanding.
McDaniel, J. L. (2018). Evaluating the ability and desire of police and crime commissioners (PCCs) to deliver community-oriented policing in practice. In Leventakis G., & Haberfeld M. R. (Eds.) Societal Implications of Community-Oriented Policing and Technology (pp. 39-46). Springer.
The transition from the old orders of command and control, strict compliance with legislation to the supervision of law enforcement with a focus on the community cannot be carried out instantly. Such a process involves many significant changes in the main generally accepted concepts of the police departments’ activity. For these reasons, the author of the article set the task of assessing the capabilities and desires of police officers to make corresponding changes. To write an article, the author made an analysis of theoretical material. The study will be useful and interesting for those who make decisions to carry out reforms in certain areas, as it indicates what important aspects need attention before taking action.
Almost every district and society need a police force that is responsive to their needs. One of the most important ways to convince the police of such a demand is to increase their contacts with citizens who make up an inviolable, law-abiding majority. However, the author concludes that it is difficult for police officers to allow such changes, as they are accustomed to ensuring safety by their methods and sure that they know better what is be best for society. Representatives of law enforcement agencies tend to rely only on their own strength. This fact indicates a communication gap that officers must overcome by listening to the opinion of society. This is important, as it recalls that the police should protect citizens’ rights and are responsible for them.