What Is Civil Society?

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Abstract

Striving to provide open, just and harmonious society, civil societies operate as a forced-backed structure distinct from those of a state’s political system, family and commercial institutions in which they practice. They embrace the diversity of spaces in social economic injustices, political grievances and power imbalances. Varying in autonomy and power, civil societies are populated in organisations such as faith-based organisations, trade unions, self-help groups, community groups, among others.

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The range of issues that is of potential interest to us is quite broad. Therefore, our thematic chapters begins with a discussion of benefits of civil society to the world at large, this is followed by a chapter in civil society key role in the Information Society. There is also a discussion on civil society roles in regard to internet governance as well as its impacts and challenges.

Introduction

Civil societies address political grievances, power imbalances, and social-economic injustice. Centre for Civil Society broadens our understanding by defining civil society as “the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values”1. Civil society mobilises organisations outside government and business sectors, both organised and essentially disorganised with an objective to achieve their aspirations, meet their needs. They achieve change through constant pressure on the state they are in doubt. Civil societies speak against worst forms of human rights abuse by addressing political grievances, power imbalances, and social-economic injustice.

The paper describes the roles of civil societies in engaging in sustainable development in the world at large. Beginning with analysis on how they operate, we present a notion that departs from “civil society as a charity institution” to describe the condition of social-economic injustices, political grievances and power imbalances in policy making arena. The essay explicitly describes civil society’s objectives by outlining the reasons they become social fabric of our well being.

We put forward a case study that outlines what we identify as community engagement in Nepal. By agreeing that civil societies assist in development, our analysis first deals with centralisation of power in Kenya, the second with violence extremism, third with information governance, and forth with its functions in mobilising community efforts. In information technology sector, this research provides an in-depth introduction on Internet Governance and the role of civil society and why it is important for developing countries to have a say in matters pertaining to governing the Internet.

Benefits of Civil Societies

Civil society work has extended around into the world. The range of issues that is of potential interest to us is quite broad and therefore, it may be more reasonable to refine civil society in terms of being‘space filler’ in regard to its activities in assisting government and communities develop legislation that protects this space rather than legislation that controls their activities. Strongly influenced by collective responsibilities, Kaviraj findings state that “some of civil society attempts led to the emergence of social contract that contested social relations existing in accordance with human nature”2.

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He adds that “human beings are motivated by self interest..upon realising the danger of arnarchy, human beings became aware of the need of a mechanism to protect them”3. Kaviraj analysis continues to argue that “rationality and self interests persuade human beings to combine in agreement, to surrender sovereignty to a common power”3. In his concept, Kaviraj links civil society to voluntary civil and social organisation that brings reality that defines the relationship between the state and civil society. Kaviraj analysis further concluded that “the basic right of human beings are the preservation of life, liberty and property” 3.

In his definition of civil society Kaviraj provides that States must operate within the bounds of civil and natural law given the authority they have in enacting and maintaining laws. He concludes by summarising that civil societies represent the interest of the dominant class and argue that the state can not be neutral problem solver and defender of all the interests of the community.

The negative view about civil society as development impeders was rectified by their proactive activities eminent across in the world. Perhaps the reason that civil society seems more obviously as social justice- than charity is because it tends to produce more in the way state externalities are unable to achieve. Evidently considered as problem solvers in the community, the nation and internationally, civil societies have also been perceived as anti-authoritarian and confrontational in their operations. It is for this reason we highlight their progressive and reactionary forces across various sectors of the economy3.

Civil Society and Politics in Kenya

Civil society revolutionary forces pressure mounted on political regimes characterised by income inequality, poverty and dictatorship translated into one- party dominance with incumbency advantages. Authoritarian political system allowed the emergence of civil societies to democratise the states by opening up the political science and making democratic consolidation easy. When a state’s capacity is weak and can not enforce law, global entities and initiatives within civil societies emerge to crack and respond to demands for political reform, albeit reluctantly, combat the incumbency advantage, oppose current policies and propose alternative solutions.

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Developing countries have for many years been experiencing economic realm and neo-liberalism, what Matanga links to be the root cause of economic crisis in the region4. In this regard, the research focuses on Kenya to demonstrate the role of the emergent civil society in Africa. As evidenced during the 1982 to 1991 period of one-party regime, the absence of formal political organisation that could confront the state was missing.

In this case, civil societies were the only credible alternative to social, economic and political problems where the state failed to provide4. To illustrate the role and influence civil societies in ensuring social-economic balance in Africa, Matanga analysis explains challenging roles they encounter in the domestic political system and provides empirical examples both progressive and reactionary forces in relation to policy advocacy concentrated at opposing the authoritarian state in Kenya

The awakening of civil society in Africa, especially in the confrontational and oppositional segment, has been largely attributed to the response to the declining economic capacity of the African state. Matanga analysis observed that increasing tendency towards political decay, decline in competitive party politics, establishment of patrimonial regimes cantered on personalisation of power, suppression of civil liberties are among other political malpractices experienced in the region.

Civil societies play double roles being either progressive or reactionary. In progressive segment, civil society act by confronting the entrenchment authoritative state. In Kenya for example, the opposition segment of civil society has greatly contributed to the achievement of major political struggles against social injustices before the establishment of plural party system. Riddled with schisms along ethnic lines that serve to weaken and undermine their solidarity as a force for change, the opposition civil society in Kenya is a dependent civil society lacking autonomous existence from its external funders and donors. Thus, their political achievements may not be sustainable in the long-term4.

Matanga’s analysis observed the role of civil societies engagement to be either cordial or antagonistic and one that does not support common recognition of state sovereignty. In progressive force, Matanga argues that civil society applies autonomy of power that confronts and opposes authoritarian state while the retrogressive helps in entrenching an authoritarian regime through moral, political and economic support 4.

This being the framework within which the analysis of state-civil society relations is placed, Braton defines civil society as “an arena where manifold social movement..and civic organisations from all classes..attempts to constitute themselves in an ensemble of arrangements so that they can express themselves and advance their interests is fairly adequate” 5. Since civil society in Africa traces dates back in pre-colonial period, many of its achievements are believed to be the cornerstone of democracy, capable of providing a counterweight to state power by protecting human rights and expanding political participation.

This is because the economic realm and neo-liberalism characterised by centralisation of power has been argued to be the root cause of the economic crisis. The solution is argued, “is to roll back the state in the favour of the most efficient, rational market forces of which civil society and NGOs is particular are seen as constituting a core element”6.

Civil society in Kenya is tied in the tumultuous political events of the late 1980s that witnessed the rise of political revolution. This resurgence in turn generated competing tensions in the usage of civil society as a concept. Democracy being pursued by the segment of civil society may be argued to be little home-grown, and largely applied in confrontation relations with the state. The underlying assumption being that only those organisations and movement would confront and challenge state power constitutes civil society makes us question whether civil society disappears when its actors are engaged in non-confrontational activities.

To answer this question however, Matanga provides a comprehensive analysis that aims to examine the salient handicap conception of civil society. In his analysis Matanga provides a more inclusive definition that includes both collaborative and confrontational dimensions of civil society. He begins by defining civil society as a collaboration of organisation and movements with conflicting interests, all struggling to influence the state to serve their own peculiar interests. In this concern, Matanga’s definition is more coined in the collaborative powers that intrinsically resist state encroachment, seek to influence the state in the exercise of public policy and the allocation of valued resources. They interact exclusively to defend civil from aggressive powers which beset it6.

Emerging from colonialism, Kenya was bedevilled with many development problems which could not be matched with scarce resources. It is partly for this reason that civil society took over on development role during the pre-colonial period. Declared as a ‘de jure’- one-party state and with centralised power, many acts of brutalisation and abuse of power by the regime were evident. Brutality in the sense opposers of the ruling regime would be detained without trail. No open criticism of the regime policies were allowed, the press were harassed into self-censorship7. For all its intents and purposes, Matanga argues that Kenya had virtually become a police state.

Others cases such as attempts to tamper with the independence of the judiciary made no sense of the constitutional requirement that requires separation of three branches of government. In this regard, entry of civil society to battle democracy hoped to bring out change by enlightening citizens on their civil rights and their responsibilities as free citizens. Yet another contribution of civil society was experienced through the launch of ‘haki kwa wote’. Civil society started playing role by educating people of their civil rights despite the increased pressure from the state, allowing plural party politics to dominate. This led to democratic change in Kenyan political parties free to form and operate6.

A victim to political imbalances and of social cleavages, Kenya has been also affected by both religious and ethnic classes on several occasions. Policy advocacy has been riddled with schisms along ethnic lines threatening the solidarity of the oppositional civic society. Largely concentrated on areas of political advocacy and human rights, civil societies carries with it negative implications in terms of civic society sustainability and survival. Matanga succinctly sums up this argument by attempting to analyse and assess the role of civil society in politics6. The renaissance of interests of civil society draws strength from coalescing of organisations and movements characterised by when confronting an authoritarian state and reactionary when it collaborates to sustain and entrench an undemocratic state.

Violence Extremism

Also defined to provide civil laws that fill the gap within which people can associate freely and meet their needs, civil society enables associations of people without repercussions. Efforts to bring reality to the rights of freedom of speech, association and assembly have proved useful in countries where there is no accompanying right to organise and to act. The case for civil society has been wide ranging.

Matanga includes the observation that civil society gives preferential treatment to freedom of association by proving real and meaningful laws protected by international law. In the recent years, there have been efforts to form voters’ rights group, organisation to promote education for poor women, environment protection and any other myriads. Their primary focus has been centred on how societies organise to meet needs for their common good and to explore what forms of legislation would best achieve this goal8.

Another indication of the global interest in the reform of civil society legislation is efforts to reduce violence extremism. Repressive counterterrorism measures have greatly deteriorated civil liberties and human rights. Cortright argues that overly restrictive security policies have immensely contributed to a climate of suspicion in the already war tone regions. In this case civil society steps in by challenging social exclusion and unequal power relations.

Cortright analysis observes that civil societies “work against extremism by promoting human rights and developments facing constraints in their operations”…and “overemphasises on securities distort development priorities leading to extrajudicial killings and increased human rights abuse”9. On the other hand, competing interest of in their relations with the state constrain operational capacity of civil society actors. In this regard, civil society recommends evaluation of security systems based country’s democratic governance that strives to defend human rights and resolve conflict.

Struggle against violence extremism requires multiple contributions from the government, the community and civil societies in addressing the underlying conditions. Countering violent extremism requires active participation of political will in overcoming oppression, ethnic tension, social change, supporting sustainable development, defending human rights and promoting human rights. Civil society in this case seeks to interpret and clarify policy advocacy as vital struggle against terrorism and misguided counterterrorism policies.

Their proactive approach is conducted by mediating conflicts and defending human rights. Noting the transnational civil society networks that emerged to bring non-state actors into global policymaking and international diplomacy, the unending quest for democracy has steered a course between these two unworkable and undesirable extremes. Their efforts have been concentrated on working against extremism by promoting development and human rights.

The indispensable roles of civil society in addressing social and political imbalances have not been without criticism. United Nations General Assembly offers analysis of the so called ‘political challengers’ by examining their harmful impacts of repressive policies that constrict the political and operational space of civil society groups working to promote development and human rights10. In doing so, United Nations General Assembly questions the logic of security and short term political objectives. They provide a holistic approach based on economic development, human rights and good governance. They categorise civil society to include organisations such as social movements, women’s organisations and professional associations.

The Centre for Civil Society at the London School of Economics as quoted in Howell defines civil society as “the arena of uncoerced collective action characterised by shared interests, purposes, and values”11. Brown classifies civil society to include array of organisations and movements that mobilise social energies to deeply voice felt values and visions12. In summary, civil societies have played a crucial role in developed substantive capacity and influencing a range of development issues by limiting excessive accumulation of political.

Cortright presents examples of civil society movements to include the Nobel Prize-winning campaign to ban land mines, the world wide opposition to the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 and women’s campaigns in Beijing. Viewed as promoters of international law and prime movers of the most innovative initiatives dealing with emerging global challenge, civil societies have greatly assisted in implementing agencies for service delivery, technical assistant programs 9.

Civil Society in Australia

Civil Society has had a strong track record in Australia for the past decades in helping community members develop a voice in governance. Community development initiatives such as building demand for better governance and stronger leadership have improved governance in the Pacific region and increased transparency and accountability of government to its citizens. Commitment to support the demand for better governance, building stronger emphasis on working with civil society about what government does, how it operates, and how to improve government operations to account and promote stronger leadership has fostered functioning and effective states.

Close provides examples of civil societies aid organisations in Australia to include Solomon Islands and PNG13. He also mentions civil society programs to include; The Community Development Scheme with projects across PNG remote and difficult to access, Electoral Support Program mandated to carry out voter awareness campaigns that led to the 2007 national election, Media for Development Initiatives for developing media content that deal with development issues, The Church Partnership Program that supports the collaboration of seven Australian faith-based organisation with seven PNG churches to improve their capacity to deliver services to improve and promote good governance and Community Liaison Unit that supports formal and informal law and justice agencies in building peace in PNG 10.

Civil society primarily focuses on the expansion of democracy and human rights. They work by incorporating the normative ideals of the community and collaboration of various organisational activities. Virtually all forms of human injustices ranging from persistence poverty, inequality and political and social turmoil are important parts of their mission. Mobilising citizens in democratic process, bringing perspectives of marginalised groups, promoting various public interest objectives, facilitating network-building, engaging in policy processes and contributing to policy processes that are people centred and inclusive are among civil society top agenda in ensuring good governance.

Also among its top priority are research and development of technologies and standards, development and dissemination of best practices, making sure that political and market forces are accountable to the needs of all members of society, encouraging social responsibility, contributing to shaping visions of human-centred information societies based on human rights, sustainable development, social justice and empowerment of minority groups.

Internet Governance

Internet too has played a major role in the issue of development in developing countries thus the issue of Internet governance. Civil society has faced and continues to face challenges in regard to internet governance and the role they play in the society. With major unresolved issues, civil society continues to play a strong role, especially in the raising voice in developing countries. Involvement of civil society in matters pertaining governing the Internet to ensure maximum transparency has resulted in the aggravation of the existing socio-economic divide, resulting in the so called digital divide.

This however makes us question if technology is indeed the driving force of democracy. One attempt to answer this question has been implemented in the policy advocacy, the first one is framed by fundamental human rights and oriented to achieving more equitable distribution of resources, and the second one discusses issues regarding intellectual property, human rights, freedom of expression, as well as free and open source software, whose driving force was what ITU quotes as “to extend the benefits of new telecommunication technologies to the entire world’s inhabitants”14.

The role of civil society has played, plays and will perhaps continue to play was greeted in some circles by cynicism and hostility. Noteworthy is the fact that it is of paramount importance that civil society has been invited to play an important and influential role in a society of such magnitude.

Purcell’s research attempts to analyse what impacts civil society has on developing countries in as far as Internet Governance is concerned and how these countries have influenced and can continue to influence pre-WSIS and post-WSIS agenda. He observed in his statement that civil societies aspire to build information and communication societies where development is framed by fundamental human rights and oriented to achieving a more equitable distribution of resources, leading to the elimination of poverty in a way that is non-exploitative and environmentally sustainable15

Civil Society Declaration analysis further adds that “committed to building societies in which everyone can freely create, access, utilise, share, and disseminate information and knowledge, so that individuals, communities and people are empowered to improve their quality of life and to achieve their full potential”16. They act by mobilising their efforts to turning this declaration into reality, by fostering functional and influential partnerships and in so doing protect global public interests. With this in mind, civil society may include the disability movements, gender advocates, youth activists, volunteers and human and communication rights advocates, to name just a few.

Purcell’s analysis concluded that involving developing countries in Internet Governance improves their full participation in the Information Society and help them achieve the social and economic advantage that come with such a knowledge society. He further adds that community participation enhances interaction between all sections of civil society and between government bodies. It has been emphasised that inter-linkage between civil society participants, intergovernmental bureau, processing operational and logistical needs, procedures, and interactions plays a significant role in the WSIS process in terms if active participation and addressing the core development issues.

These collaborations have also been credited by Purcell to “advocate discussion on issues regarding intellectual property, human rights, freedom of expression, as well as free and open source software, among others…”17

Purcell also quotes Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to provide a fundamental requirement “of right to freedom of opinion and expression and the right to seek, receive, and impact information and ideas, through any media and regardless of frontiers”17. In their discretory of human rights, civil society provide that what Purcell summarises as there must be no prior censorship, arbitrary control of, or constraints on, participants in the communication process or on the content, transmission, and dissemination of information. Pluralism of the sources of information and the media must be safeguarded and promoted 17.

In summary, roles of civil societies in Internet governance include activities such as;

  • Raising awareness and capacity building through proving knowledge
  • Training and skills sharing
  • Promoting various public interest objectives
  • Facilitating network-building
  • Mobilising citizens in democratic process
  • Bringing perspectives of marginalised groups, excluded communities and grass-roots activists
  • Engaging in formulating policy processes, contributing expertise, skills, experience and knowledge on a range of ICT policy areas.
  • Contributing in policies processes that are people-centred and inclusive
  • Carrying out research and development of technologies and standards.
  • Developing practices and dissemination of best practices.
  • Helping to ensure political forces are accountable to the needs of all members of society
  • Encouraging social responsibility and good governance practices.
  • Advocating for the development of social projects and activities that are critical to society development
  • Contributing to shaping visions of human-centred information societies based on human rights, sustainable development, social justice and empowerment.

Also recognised as major contributors to academic community, civil societies have been known to be main sources of inspiration, innovation and creativity. On technical aspects, civil societies help community members in setting up internet operation in turn making permanent and valuable contribution to the stability, security, functioning and evolution of the internet. Purcell’s emphasises the community to be more reliance on internet to improve governance and to ensure their voice on IG issues is heard. For the purposes of our summary, one similar interest that is being concentrated is that of the creation of an Information Society.

Civil society emphasises on the need for societal information with regard to human rights caucus, copyright, trademarks and patent rights in exercising their freedom of expression via the internet. This is to the reason as that they felt information and communication technologies were paying a significant part in the world today and fundamentally challenging peoples’ lives. To replicate this analysis, African Civil Society and the World Summit on the Information Society provides as example of their website that states “The digital revolution, fired by the engines of information and communication technologies, has fundamentally changed the way people think, behave, communicate, work, and earn their livelihoods. It has forged new ways to create knowledge, educate people, and disseminate information”18.

Conclusively, civil societies with regard to Information Technology have played active roles in core principles and challenges in regards to the information society, some which include; access to information and means of communication, access to health information, development of community-based ICT solutions, culture, knowledge and public domain, infrastructure and access, information generation and knowledge development, global governance of ICT and Communications.

Rural-Urban Linkage and the Role of Civil society

Nepal is basically a rural-based economy and the ongoing civil society rural-urban linkage is aimed at achieving the goals of urban and rural development by strengthening the linkages. Civil society seeks to achieve good urban governance by mobilising efforts of community members in implementing program activities that address physical, social, economic and environmental aspects of urban development19.

More specifically their contribution has been greatly felt in the overall urban development and hence urban governance of the country. In this chapter Kumar analyses roles of civil society to include “as strength, as tools, as resources and as a watchdog”19. The Rural-Urban Partnership Program (RUPP) within the framework of which community development with diverse range of development activities is achieved defines roles of each participatory group in their linkage towards good governance. Kumar succinctly defines the roles of civil society to include prerequisite roles in making sustained impact towards strengthening rural-urban linkages and consequently promoting good urban governance.

With the growing urbanization level, Nepal majority population is still living in rural areas and therefore improved Rural-urban linkage is viewed as a vehicle towards balanced socio-economic development of both rural and urban areas. Kumar analysis further adds that overwhelming participation in the development activities could ensure success of rural-urban program as supported by civil society.

Since Rural-Urban Partnership Program (RUPP) tries to address development challenges adopted the strategy of what Kumar states as “learning by doing” philosophy. In this regard, civil societies prioritise market zones as places that promote and expand rural-urban linkages. The program is concentrated on supporting three levels of development activities such as central level (macro), municipality level (micro) and local civil society level (meso).

By encouraging local participation in ensuring sustainability of the program through local ownership has encouraged committee involvement at national level thus facilitating the implementation of program development activities. Inclusion of experiences at micro level while civil society concentrates on facilitating both implementation and monitoring of program activities is critical to community development.

With this in mind, Kumar summarises that civil society initiatives have provided a strong institutional base at the local level, facilitated decentralisation urban planning and management, local resource mobilisation, poverty alleviation and community empowerment. Also, institutional building through formation of civil society has given attention on capacity building program at both municipality and community level. The introduction of participatory planning and management approach in urban governance and enterprise development plans have also helped community developments at grass root levels.

Inclusion of technical aspects in urban management strategies with holistic strategy has helped the participation of urban actors and civil society in delivering of results oriented urban governance in the following aspects;

  • Civil societies support local communities through increased focus on their political, social and economical empowerment
  • Skills training backed my micro credit has strength their scope of economic development and social prosperity
  • Capacity building of municipalities’ ahs enhanced their adaptability with participatory urban governance and management.
  • Eased the transfer of social mobilisation and enterprise development responsibilities to the municipalities 19.

Civil society carries out institutional base for implementing diverse program activities with the ultimate aim to introduce participatory management and achieve sustainable urban development. The idea of community participation are among its capacity building initiatives aimed at keeping the interest and motivation of members alive and meeting the increasing demand of urban infrastructure and services.

By highlighting the Rupp’s strong association with local communities, civil society’s efforts in strengthening communities is quite evident. They ensure communities are comparatively trained and forward looking. The idea of community’s strength is achieved through rigorous process of capacity building initiatives. Civil society plays as a watch dog by ensuring local Nepal government follows participatory approach in their planning. Involvement in planning and monitoring municipal activities makes these organisations more accountable and encourage municipalities to continue expanding their boundary of partnership with local communities.

Civil societies have been largely successful in utilising community participation for implementing its diverse range of development activities; divert their investment in projects focused to strengthening rural-urban linkages. They play an important role in bridging the gap between municipalities and civil society, activities that are very much needed in the present context of participatory urban governance 1420.

Civil society help in community development by gathering valuable views and opinions of local intellectuals closely linked with municipal planning and development activities. They supervise and monitor municipal projects of their respective areas and raise transparency level of municipal activities by helping in checking the unjustified leakage and corruption. Kumar summarises his findings by adding that community participation enhances the ownership feeling and make user’s group more sincere and accountable towards local development.

Conclusion

Nonetheless, there is even greater scope to benefit from civil societies, in view of their direct involvement in municipal revenue generation activities. Institutional building through formation of civil society has given attention on capacity building program at both municipality and community level. The introduction of participatory planning and management approach in urban governance and enterprise development plans have also helped community developments at grass root levels.

Mobilising citizens in democratic process, bringing perspectives of marginalised groups, promoting various public interest objectives, facilitating network-building, engaging in policy processes and contributing to policy processes that are people centred and inclusive are among civil society ensure good governance and community participation.

Bibliography

African Civil Society and the World Summit on the Information Society, (2010). Web.

Barkan,Joel and Holmquist, Frank, ‘Politics and the peasantry in Kenya: The lessons of Harambee’ (1986) 40 IDS WP 180.

Bratton, Michael, ‘Beyond the state: Civil Society and Associational Life in Africa’ (1989) 11 (3) World Politics 407, 407-430.

Brown, David, Creating Credibility: Legitimacy and Accountability for Transnational Civil Society Sterling (2008) Va: Kumarian Press.

Centre for Civil Society, ‘What is Civil Society?’ (2004) 3 London School of Economic 1.

Civil Society Declaration, ‘Shaping Information Societies for Human Needs’ (2003). Web.

Close, Sophia, ‘Inquiry into Australia’s aid program in the Pacific’ (2007) 32 AusAID 1, 1-10.

Cortright, David, ‘Friend not Foe:Civil Society and the Struggle against Violent Extremism’ (2008)19 Fourth Freedom Forum and Kroc Institute 1, 1-36.

Howell, Jude, ‘The backlash against civil society in the wake of the Long War on Terror’ Development in Practice’ (2008) 1.

ITU, ‘Message from Yushio Utsumi, ITU Secretary and Secretary General of the Summit’ (2001) 40. Web.

Kaviraj, Sudipta, ‘Civil Society: History and Possibilities’ (2001) 47.

Kumar, Suman, ‘Rural-Urban Linkage and Role of Civil Society: A Successful Model for Good Urban Governance in Nepal’(2003) 2 Regional Conference 1, 1-20.

Matanga, Frank, ‘Civil Society and Politics In Africa: The Case Of Kenya’ (2000) 2 Democratic theory and practice in Africa 1, 1-43.

Purcell, Fuatai, ‘Of Civil Society: Internet Governance and Developing Countries’ (2005) 5 Internet Governance Research Project 1, 1-30.

United Nations General Assembly, ‘We the Peoples: Civil Society, the United Nations and Global Governance: Report of the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations-Civil Society Relations’ (2004) 58, 1-13.

Footnotes

  1. Centre for Civil Society, ‘What is Civil Society’ (2004) 1.
  2. Kaviraj, Sudipta, ‘Civil Society’ (2001) 289.
  3. Kaviraj, Sudipta, ‘Civil Society’ (2001) 289.
  4. Matanga Frank, Civil Society And Politics In Africa: The Case Of Kenya (2000).
  5. Matanga Frank, Civil Society And Politics In Africa: The Case Of Kenya (2000) 5 Bratton, Michael, ‘Beyond the state: civil society and associational life in Africa’ (1989) 417.
  6. Matanga Frank, Civil Society And Politics In Africa: The Case Of Kenya (2000).
  7. Matanga Frank, Civil Society And Politics In Africa: The Case Of Kenya (2000).
  8. Barkan,Joel and Holmquist, Frank, Politics and the peasantry in Kenya: The lessons of Harambee, (1986) 180.
  9. Matanga Frank, Civil Society And Politics In Africa: The Case Of Kenya (2000).
  10. Cortright, David, ‘Friend not Foe: Civil Society and the Struggle Against Violence Extremism’ (2008) 7.
  11. Cortright, David, ‘Friend not Foe: Civil Society and the Struggle Against Violence Extremism’ (2008) 7.
  12. United Nations General Assembly, ‘We the Peoples: Civil Society, the United Nations and Global Governance: Report of the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations-Civil Society Relations’ (2004).
  13. Howell, Jude, ‘The backlash against civil society in the wake of the Long War on Terror’ Development in Practice ( 2008) 1.
  14. Brown, David , Creating Credibility: Legitimacy and Accountability for Transnational Civil Society Sterling, (2008) Va: Kumarian Press.
  15. United Nations General Assembly, ‘We the Peoples: Civil Society, the United Nations and Global Governance: Report of the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations-Civil Society Relations’ (2004).
  16. Close, Sophia, ‘Inquiry into Australia’s Aid Program in the Pacific’ (2007).
  17. ITU, ‘Message from Yushio Utsumi, ITU Secretary and Secretary General of the Summit’ (2001).
  18. Purcell, Fuatai, ‘Role of Civil Society: Internet Governance and Developing Countries’ (2005).
  19. Civil Society Declaration, ‘Shaping Information Societies for Human Needs’ (2003) 1.
  20. Howell, Jude, ‘The backlash against civil society in the wake of the Long War on Terror’ Development in Practice ( 2008) 1.
  21. African Civil Society and the World Summit on the Information Society (2010) 1.
  22. Kumar, Suman, Rural-Urban Linkage and Role of Civil Society: A Successful Model for Good Urban Governance in Nepal (2003) 1-3.
  23. Kumar, Suman, Rural-Urban Linkage and Role of Civil Society: A Successful Model for Good Urban Governance in Nepal (2003) 3.

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