The Role of Public Policy in Society
It is necessary to begin with the fact that public policy represents specific strategies that the state uses in order to put laws into effect. Speaking about the role of this policy in society, it should also be noted that all these laws represent certain actions that will remain stable for a relatively long period of time (Dunn, 2017). In addition to this fact, the prominent role of public policy is to solve the problems not of a particular individual or any small group but the entire society of a particular state. Moreover, the state should create a mechanism in which interaction through certain authorities should help people report society problems.
In this case, it becomes the responsibility of the authorities to consider the issues put forward by society, and as a result, make decisions that will affect all residents of the country. The importance of public policy for society lies in the fact that it is essentially the main factor in the existence of state power. People choose the government, and its main task is to implement precisely those laws or political decisions in which society is interested in by creating legislative bodies.
The Substance of Public Policy
Public policy is the activity of state authorities aimed at solving public problems and the implementation and achievement of significant goals for individual spheres of society or society as a whole. Public policy is a means that, in turn, allows the state to achieve specific goals in a particular area, using economic, legal, as well as administrative methods of influence, relying on the resources at its disposal (Dunn, 2017). First of all, the policy should be open, competitive, and results-oriented.
Public policy is a general action plan of political and administrative authorities and management, which aims to solve significant social problems that affect people’s lives. This policy includes the following elements: setting goals and priorities for the development of society; developing and planning a political strategy; analyzing and evaluating costs; choosing and making state decisions; monitoring and evaluating implementation.
In the development of public policy, numerous individuals and interest groups compete and cooperate to influence politicians and encourage them to act in a certain way (Mukosa, 2019). Various actors are involved in developing public policy, such as politicians, civil servants, lobbyists, subject matter specialists, and industry representatives. They use various tactics and tools to achieve their goals, including defending their positions publicly, influencing supporters and opponents, and mobilizing allies on a particular issue (Mukosa, 2019). Many actors can play an essential role in the process of developing public policy. However, the last word remains with government officials. At the same time, it is assumed that government officials comply with ethical standards adopted in the public sector and consider the needs of all stakeholders.
Domains of Public Policy
Executive authorities play the leading role in the implementation of public policy at all levels. The effectiveness of this policy depends on the fulfillment of several conditions. The legislation should accurately define the boundaries and the main organizational and financial aspects of the implementation of public policy (Yalmanov, 2021). Executive bodies should have the necessary resources and qualified personnel. Public policy should find broad support among social groups and leaders of socio-political organizations. Also, this policy should not cause social conflicts and undermine the socio-economic or political foundations of the state.
Depending on the purpose of the intervention, public policy measures can be aimed at stimulating investment and restoring the balance between savings and investment; ensuring full employment; stimulating the export and import of goods, capital and labor (Yalmanov, 2021). Also, measures can be aimed at influencing the general price level in order to stabilize it and the prices of some specific goods; support for sustainable economic growth; redistribution of income.
The Policy Process
One of the main methods of implementing public policy is targeted programs. This is a tool of state policy. They are linked in terms of resources, performers and terms of implementation with a complex of research, development, production, socio-economic, organizational and economic, and other measures that ensure the practical solution of tasks. The executive authorities pay special attention to developing strategic and operational plans and linking them with the goals and activities of the representative government (Tummers, 2019). One of the effective methods that allow studying the effectiveness of the implementation of plans and programs at the initial stage is developing a scenario for their implementation. It describes future events and anticipates the behavior of the prominent participants. Usually, several scenarios are developed under different conditions and the presence of favorable and unfavorable factors.
Public policy is considered vital when it solves problems efficiently and effectively, serves justice, supports government institutions and activities, and encourages active civic positions (Tummers, 2019). The changes in society that have occurred in recent decades have also led to changes in the sphere of public policy formation. Today, public policy is becoming more goal-oriented, focused on measurable results and goals, emphasizing decisions that must be taken immediately. In addition, mass communications and technological changes have led to the fact that the system of this policy is becoming more complex and interconnected. All these changes pose new challenges for the current policy and put pressure on it to develop and remain effective and efficient.
Dunn, W.N. (2017). Public policy analysis: An integrated approach (6th ed.). Routledge. Web.
Mukosa, F. (2019). Public policy. Imperial journal of interdisciplinary research, 5, 1-7.
Tummers, L. (2019). Public policy and behavior change. Public administration review, 79, 925-930.
Yalmanov, N. (2021). Public policy and policy-making. KnE Social sciences, 10, 558-564.