Political Globalization: International Relations Theories

Political globalization refers to the expansion of political ideas and institutions around the world. This can be seen in the spread of democracy, human rights, and international organizations like the United Nations. There are three main international relations theories in political globalization: liberalism, realism, and constructivism theory. On the other hand, the four issues in political globalization are the rise of social exclusion and human rights abuses, inequality and poverty, climate change, and environmental degradation. Conversely, political globalization destroys national sovereignty, while the other is that it creates a more peaceful world. Political globalization is a necessary step in achieving equality for all people, preserving democracy, and preventing environmental degradation, and therefore, it should be embraced.

Liberalism is a theory in political philosophy foundational to the ideas of liberty and equality. According to Destek (2020), liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally believe that government exists to protect and enhance individual rights. Liberalism theory itself is based on the promotion of human rights, and so it is reasonable to expect that liberalized states would uphold these principles in their international relations (Baylis, 2020). Indeed, many liberal thinkers have argued forcefully for the universal protection of human rights, and there have been a number of important consequent developments at the global level.

The most notable is probably the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 following significant campaigning by advocates of Liberal thought. This document represents an important milestone in the history of global efforts to protect human rights. It sets out a standard of human rights that all people are entitled to, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, language, political or other opinions, national or social origin, property, or birth (Woods, 2017). It is the first international document that deals with human rights and has been influential in the development of international law.

Realism is a political international relations theory that holds that states are the principal actors in the global arena and that security arises from the interactions of these states. It emphasizes the use of power and money to achieve national goals (Utomo, 2019). Realists believe that humans are inherently selfish and aggressive and that nations act primarily in their own self-interest. According to Mingst et al. (2018) in “Essentials of international relations”, they see war as a natural state of affairs and believe that peace can only be maintained through a strong military posture. Realism has been criticized for its simplistic view of human nature and its focus on firepower over diplomacy (Destek, 2020). Critics argue that globalization has promoted inequality, as the poor have become even poorer. Others argue that globalization has actually helped to reduce poverty, since many are can access education, health care, and other opportunities that had previously been out of reach.

Constructivism is a theory of international relations that sees international relations as being constructed by the interactions between agents. As Mingst et al. (2018) explained in their book “The United Nations in the 21st century”, constructivism has its roots in sociology and stresses the importance of shared norms and ideas in constructing international reality. As Kitching (2022) observed, for constructivists, globalization is not just about expanding economic activity or increasing connectivity between people but also about the way that globalization changes the human understanding of what is possible and permissible in international politics. Constructivism, as an international relations theory, holds that globalization is best addressed by understanding and addressing the various inequalities within societies (Baylis, 2020). Constructivists argue that by understanding and changing the way global institutions function, we can help to reduce inequality and poverty.

In political globalization, constructivism has been used to understand how international organizations can help to address global problems like poverty and inequality. For example, international organizations can play a role in setting standards for corporate responsibility, which could help to reduce the exploitation of workers in developing countries (Brown, 2019). In political globalization, constructivism has been useful in aiding people to understand and solve environmental degradation issues. In a constructivist worldview, humans are seen as active participants in their environment, constantly shaping and reshaping their reality through their interactions with others. According to Stiglitz (2017), this perspective recognizes that different cultures see the world differently and that these differences must be taken into account when trying to solve global problems like environmental degradation. In order to effectively address environmental degradation, it is important to understand the root causes of the problem (Turner, 2021). Constructivism provides a framework for doing that by highlighting the importance of culture in how people interact with their environment.

There are a few key arguments that support the idea that political globalization creates a more peaceful world. First, when countries become economically interconnected, they have a vested interest in maintaining global economic stability. This is because political and economic instability in one country can quickly spread to others, creating a ripple effect that can be damaging to all involved (Kitching, 2022). Second, when countries are politically interconnected, they are more likely to cooperate on issues such as human rights abuse and climate change. By working together, countries can find solutions to these global problems that would be difficult or impossible to achieve if each country acted alone. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests political globalization is gradually eroding the sovereignty of nation-states (Stiglitz, 2017). This argument primarily centres around the phenomenon of outsourcing, whereby nation-states contract out various policy functions to transnational organizations or other states.

In conclusion, political globalization is important because it can lead to increased peace and prosperity. One of the most important reasons is that it leads to increased peace and prosperity. Political globalization also helps to promote human rights and democracy and similarly aids in protecting the environment; additionally, political globalization assists in facilitating trade and economic cooperation. Through international relations theories like realism, liberalism, and constructivism, political globalization has achieved various positive results.


Baylis, J. (2020). The globalization of world politics: An introduction to international relations. Oxford University Press, USA.

Brown, C. (2019). Understanding international relations. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Destek, M. A. (2020). Investigation on the role of economic, social, and political globalization on environment: Evidence from CEECs. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(27), 33601-33614.

Kitching, G. (2022). Seeking social justice through globalization. Penn State University Press.

Mingst, K. A., Karns, M. P., & Lyon, A. J. (2018). The United Nations in the 21st century. Routledge.

Mingst, K. A., McKibben, H. E., & Arreguin-Toft, I. M. (2018). Essentials of international relations. WW Norton & Company.

Stiglitz, J. E. (2017). The overselling of globalization. Business Economics, 52(3), 129-137.

Turner, B. S. (2021). Vulnerability and human rights. Penn State University Press.

Utomo, A. B. (2019). Reimagining city identities in globalization: A constructivist study on city paradiplomacy. Global South Review, 1(2), 33-48.

Woods, N. (2017). The political economy of globalization. Macmillan International Higher Education.

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