Modern Technology and Its Impact on Policing

Scholarly Journal

The authors of the article Optimizing the use of technology in policing constitute Christopher S. Koper, Cynthia Lum, and James J. Willis. The three authors are professors of Criminology, Law, and Society in a respected educational organization, George Mason University (Koper, Lum, Willis, 2014). Additionally, they are co-directors of the evidence-based policing program in the Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, which serves as a conduit for their publications. Policing: An International Journal is a peer-reviewed journal and an academic press that focuses on the most vital researchers and other topics in the field of law. The publisher is cited by respected sources due to its credibility and also has several Literati awards (Policing, n.d.). However, nothing is mentioned about its affiliation with other organizations.

In the article, the authors argue that while technology has particular potential for enhancing policing, data on police technology is limited, raising concerns about the technology’s effectiveness. According to the article, the implications of technology are multifaceted, and technical breakthroughs do not necessarily result in clear or straightforward benefits in efficiency, communication, coordination, control, or work satisfaction (Koper, Lum, Willis, 2014). Furthermore, police frequently struggle to make tactically effective use of technology in order to reduce crime and protect communities. The writers studied these difficulties using interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires, and other approaches, focusing on the specific technology.

The given source does not show any signs of bias since there are no vigorous debates or personal opinions; instead, there is data retrieved from other peer-reviewed materials. The author’s goal in this situation is to bring awareness to the issue of technology and help the audience, the police, receive training and suggestions to improve the quality of their service (Koper, Lum, Willis, 2014). Therefore, the level of accuracy of this article is high due to the credibility of the publisher, the credentials of the authors, and numerous peer-reviewed sources. Nevertheless, this source is not suitable for academic research because the provided data might be considered outdated.

Web Article

Dr. Jarrod Sadulski works at American Military University as an adjunct professor. Sadulski performed a survey of about 300 peer-reviewed scholarly articles focusing on police stress and police officer well-being (Sadulski, 2017). There is no data provided to indicate any affiliation with other organizations or credible publishers. As for the publisher, it is Police1, a comprehensive online channel for law enforcement agencies (Sadulski, 2017). Thus, it is not a scholarly article or academic publisher. Moreover, there is no information on whether the publisher is affiliated with credible organizations or is cited by respected sources.

The author argues that while technology has undeniably aided policing, most of these improvements have also had adverse—and frequently unnoticed—effects on policing. Technologically advanced equipment can assist law enforcement employees in executing their jobs more efficiently, decreasing personnel shortages, and boosting officer safety (Sadulski, 2017). On the other hand, technology may be a source of stress for police personnel. The evidence level of this article is low due to a lack of reliable data. The only source used by the author is one credible peer-reviewed article. Therefore, the rest of the article is based on biased information, unacknowledged by the author, of harm of technology and individual recommendations. Sadulski sees his goal to help his audience, law enforcement agencies, understand this pressure and make efforts to assist officers in becoming adept and confident with technology.

Therefore, considering that the publisher is not a credible source, it is rational not to perceive the given source as accurate. Additionally, this source is not suitable for academic research due to a lack of literature review. The only source used is also relatively outdated since it was published in 2009.


The two sources prove to vary in approaches, credibility, and accuracy. Among the general trends of both articles are a description of modern technology and its impact on policing. However, while one work doubts the efficacy of the technology, another article stresses its negative impact. Moreover, while the first paper does not indicate bias, Sadulski’s work can be considered biased due to its focus on personal opinion.


Koper, Christopher S., Lum, Cynthia, and Willis, James J. 2014. “Optimizing the Use of Technology in Policing: Results and Implications from a Multi-Site Study of the Social, Organizational, and Behavioural Aspects of Implementing Police Technologies.” Policing 8 (2): 212–21.

Policing. Emerald Publishing.

Sadulski, Jarrod. 2017. “Unintended Consequences of Technology in Policing.” Police1.

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