The Fourth Amendment is a piece of the Constitution that protects the citizens from an unexpected and unreasonable search of their properties. According to the Amendment, every citizen has a right “to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures” (Rotenberg & Petkova 1). The question is what constitutes a reasonable search, which also includes cases without a warrant. Police can conduct a search if an officer has probable cause, such as any visible evidence or hearsay, a signed affidavit, or surveillance. One of the examples where police can conduct the search without a warrant is if a person is stopped for speeding. In that case, an officer has a right to proceed with the search of a drug in the car without a warrant. Unreasonable search includes the search without any convincing evidence of illegal activity. For example, there are cases when a drug-sniffing dog identifies the drugs in a private area; then officer conducts a search. Such kind of activity is considered an unreasonable search without a warrant.
One of the recent innovative technology tools that are used by police is a facial recognition system. The technology allows identifying the face of the suspect or a criminal in a video recording using algorithms and artificial intelligence. This way, police are able to find the right person from surveillance data with thousands of people. Even though the technology is very convenient and promising, it still has some disadvantages. Negative sides of the technology include errors that machines can give, which will lead to unreasonable arrests. Also, the technology is not ethical in terms of the privacy of citizens, which is an important issue in law. Another technology that recently started being used by police is biometrics. The technology includes identification of the person based on the voice, wrist veins, palmprints, and even heartbeat. The controversy around the technology is the same as with facial recognition systems; it might result in an error and lead to mistakes.
The negative perception of police officers among youth is directly related to the image of the police. The image of the police is a representation of public consciousness, associations endowing the police with additional properties (social, psychological, aesthetic, etc.). The properties are not always based on the real properties of the police themselves, but the social significance for individuals who perceive such an image. Hence, it is important to change the image of the police among the young generation. The schools should construct a proper image of police officers, thus, leading to increased trust between the officers and the youth. As a juvenile, I would appreciate it if police officers would be keener to understand the situation and the whole picture of youth-related cases instead of accusing the young generation.
The culture that I have known nothing about is the Central Asian Nomadic culture of Kazakh people. The main feature of the culture is respect for elderly people. If the person is old, police officers should be aware that he is expecting them to be respectful. Also, debating with old people is unacceptable behavior. Young people are not allowed to question the authority of old people and cannot go against their will. Also, eating horse meat is considered normal in Kazakh culture. One of the strange customs is the kidnapping of the bride before the marriage. There are cases when people kidnap a girl who they do not even know and then marry them. Also, hospitality is very important for Kazakh people and their culture. Police officers should not be surprised if they are invited to a home for tea or even dinner by a completely strange family.
Rotenberg, Marc, and Bilyana Petkova. “US District Court Affirms Fourth Amendment against New York City Ordinance that Would Have Required Airbnb and Home Away to Disclose Large Amounts of Personal Data.” European Data Protection Law Review (EDPL) (2019).