The Canadian Political Culture and Democracy


The political culture of Canada heavily borrows from the North American and European political culture. Political culture is responsible for the political system adopted in a certain country. Canada is a democracy, composed of two main parties, the Liberal Party of Canada and the Conservative Party of Canada. Regular democratic elections are conducted in Canada and leadership is determined, with the democratic system in this country being one of the most admirable and enviable in the world (Rocher & Fafard, 2017). The Canadian political culture is rooted in constitutional law, freedom of religion, personal liberty, and regional autonomy. The influence of political culture in public policy is immense as it guides actions during formulation and implementation. Political culture is similar to general culture within a community that affects the actions of members of society. Political culture highlights the belief the electorate has in their elected leaders and their actions must reflect the wishes of their people.

Security and Sovereignty Policy

The political culture in Canada and democracy create an interplay that guides the actions of the public officials without necessarily seeking regular validation from the people. Canada is a state that heavily emphasizes its sovereignty and this importance is clear in its devotion to protecting its borders. Political culture is heavily borrowed from the history and values of a nation, with the colonization history of Canada being responsible for its emphasis on sovereignty (McGranahan, 2018). The adaptation of democracy within the state and the establishment of an independent military is a means of ensuring that the nation is secure from encroachment and colonization. The people of Canada entrust their democratic government with this mandate during every election cycle and this is reflected in policy with their powerful neighbors. The government ensures that the borders are not porous, restricting movement into Canada. The review of borders to ensure that the territory that consists of the Canadian state is usually done regularly to ensure the landmass is constant.

Foreign Policy

The foreign policy in Canada and its relations with other countries reflect its political culture and belief in democracy. This state’s foreign policy is devoted to maintaining independence in other states, promoting democracy, and protecting the economic interests of its citizens. The impact of a country in another regarding foreign policy is usually a reflection of the interests of her own citizens. A country is usually interested in the needs of another nation when the political culture of that state and governance style relate with its own. Canadian foreign policy usually focuses on safekeeping missions, decolonizing, and promoting international trade (Ahmad, 2017). This reflects the values of sovereignty in Canada and the values emanating from it due to the history of colonization. Foreign policy in Canada also focuses on the promotion of human rights and preventing exploitation, as the Canadian government ensures back home. Cooperation with states that adopt different political systems such as dictatorships usually presents difficulties due to the different beliefs and political culture.

Economic Policy

Economic policies in Canada are formulated by the democratic government and influence the productivity of the people and the quality of lives they lead. The financial policy involves both domestic efforts in promoting trade and international efforts in exporting and importing goods to strengthen the position of the state globally. Fiscal policy within the nation is grounded in the values of equality as the government makes efforts geared towards ensuring all its citizens are productive (Béland et al., 2017). The commerical dominance of Canada on the global stage stems from its emphasis on hard work and devotion to promoting the nation collectively. A financial policy with trading partners by the government always ensures the country gains valuable income and guarantees its people are enriched by the same. The fiscal policy in this country focuses on production to ensure self-reliance and exportation of goods and culture to ensure the strengthening of the currency. These monetary actions are a subset of the political culture in the country that emphasizes the state is a global leader in economics, and the desire to strengthen itself.

Healthcare Policy

Healthcare policy in Canada is one of the most effective globally and reflects the political culture of the state. The healthcare policy in this country has bared the fruits of innovation, low costs, and technological incorporation. The various governments in power usually implement different policies towards bettering healthcare, but they are all grounded on the values that encompass the political culture. The healthcare system focuses on equality and ensuring the needs of all citizens are met. This entails providing certain healthcare services to the communities that need them the most, and who would benefit the most from their implementation. The government focuses on palliative care and provides relevant requirements for the aged population in the country. The emphasis on technological use in healthcare reflects a political culture of competitiveness by the nation and its position as a global leader in health (Maggie et al., 2019). Canada boasts of one of the cheapest out-of-pocket costs for its citizens when seeking healthcare as the government subsidizes it to an affordable level.

Education Policy

Educational policies in Canada are always focused on ensuring competitiveness in the global market and reflecting the diversity in the citizens. The nation is multiracial and composed of people of all ancestry in the world. The education system usually focuses on instilling pride and belief in the Canadian system and democratic devotion towards the country. The education public policies usually ensure that each diverse group is considered by fostering equality in the distribution of schools. This ensures that each area has adequate institutions for its citizens and that they can access quality enlightenment (Bieler et al., 2017). The Canadian policy on education also competes with some of the best globally, with the emphasis on making its graduates global citizens. The education system prepares its citizens to compete for opportunities globally by ensuring they are enlightened on cultures and practices elsewhere. This aspect of the learning format is borrowed from the political culture that sees the country as a leader in global affairs. The enlightenment policy also reflects the political cultures of personal liberty as it enables the citizens to attain self-reliance and prosperity.

The legal system is another essential aspect of Canada that bears resemblance to its political culture and belief in democracy. The judicial policy focuses on the rule of law, constitutionalism, judicial independence, and impartially in its practice. The devotion to the independence of the judiciary is shown by the minimal interference in judicial activities by other arms of the government and the adequate funding allocated (Russell, 2019). This ensures that the legal system focuses on delivering justice whenever disputes arise for peaceful and cohesive existence. The legal system also acts as a guardian that checks the actions of other arms of the government, protecting citizens from exploitation and bad rule. The reliance on the constitution ensures the centralization of actions based on a singular source of direction, preventing disharmony and unfairness.

Emphasis on constitutionalism and the rule of law is borne from the belief that no citizens are above the law and that all should be treated fairly. Legal policy assures all its citizens of a fair trial whenever they are in a precarious situation with this arm of the government (Russell, 2019). The belief of the people, which ultimately reflects their political culture, is that they are all rightfully part of the state and that their position cannot be changed by anybody. The thriving legal system based on these values and political culture is one of the best globally and has been responsible for the development witnessed. Canada is a powerhouse in many essential industries and this can be attributed to its legal system that enables peaceful coexistence and promotes independence.


In conclusion, the political culture and democratic beliefs of Canada are massively responsible for the many actions the state undertakes on behalf of its people. The actions the state undertakes are termed public policy and are usually in tandem with public expectations, even without consultation. Political culture reflects the values, beliefs, and history of a nation and informs the choice of s political system. A nation is likely to relate better with one that has a similar political culture, as shown by Canada’s tendency to relate better with democracies. The sovereignty of the state is crucial and stems from the belief in the independence of the nation. The foreign policy reiterates the need to protect Canadian citizens and meet their needs while ensuring their advancement. The educational policy devotes resources towards equality while the economic policy is grounded on competitiveness. The healthcare policy reiterates the need for healthy citizens and channels innovation into its practice while the legal policy ensures the rule of law and constitutionalism.


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Russell, P. (2019). Judicial power in Canada’s political culture. Courts and Trials, 75–88. Web.

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