The president’s role as “Commander-in-Chief” in full and the “modern presidency”
As the Commander-in-Chief, the president is entitled to control the army and the Navy of the United States, protecting the nation’s security. According to the constitution of the US, when the need arises, the president is to fulfill his duties as the commander of all the armed forces, including land, naval, and air units. For instance, if the United States suffers a military conflict with a neighboring power, the president will be able to assume his position as the Commander-in-Chief, seizing control over the nation’s armies.
The notion of the modern presidency refers to the understanding of the current formal powers available to the president. The modern presidency was constructed over years of development, namely technological, economic and ideological transformations, which formed the presidential role as it is seen today. Legislative leadership, public leadership, and the exercise of discretionary power, both domestically and in foreign affairs, are the core characteristics of modern presidents who occupy the position of national leaders. These attributes distinguish between the constitutional presidency enacted in 1787 and its modern counterpart, which started to develop under Franklin Roosevelt.
Explaination of “How a Bill Becomes a Law” and the “modern-day” method of a bill becoming law
In the current legislative setting, the bill is suggested by the House of Congress or the House of Representatives. Members of the house or Senate will discuss the suggested changes and propose any additional amendments, after which the process of voting will begin. Based on the majority of the votes, the bill can either pass the selection process, followed by a similar voting procedure in the other house, or it can be declined. After both of the houses vote in favor of the current version of the bill, it will be forwarded to the president, who might approve the suggestion, thus making it a law. In the modern-day method, the president can also veto the bill, returning it to Congress, or choose no action. In the latter situation, if Congress is in session, the proposition will automatically become law.
What prompted the passage of the Pendleton Act
The Pendleton Act of 1883 was prompted by the assassination of President James Garfield by a disappointed job seeker. To protect potential employees from an unjust selection process and prevent workers from being fired or demoted due to political reasons, the Pendleton act was established. Furthermore, this act makes it illegal to require political service or contributions from the labor force. Therefore, any federal representatives had to be chosen on the basis of merit rather than according to their political standing or current presidential support. The cause for this introduction was the abused spoils system, which originated significant discontent from the public.
The Administrative Procedures Act 1947
The Administrative Procedures Act of 1947 refers to the legislation that controls the process of developing and issuing regulations by federal agencies. According to the act, both proposed and final suggestions for the to be introduced laws should be made available to the general public, which is further given an opportunity to comment on the proposed changes. Congress holds specific control over the administrative agencies and can present a law that overrules their decisions or alters the jurisdictions. The president, on the other hand, executes laws through the federal agencies, which are under the direct control of the nation’s leader. For instance, the president might veto or sign the proposed bill, fulfilling the suggestions of Congress or overruling it. As for the judicial power over agencies, the Supreme Court oversees the actions undertaken by administrative agencies, holding the authority to check their endeavors and balance their jurisdiction.