Political theory encompasses the assessment of the political practices and the general society. It also involves the examination of political views and values, such as democracy, equality, freedom, power, and justice that the people of an organization may have. It helps people describe better the things that have shaped the politics of the population. It tries to help individuals explore how an improved politically aware world would look and develop steps to recreate a better political world. A country means a geographically bounded territorial region that people recognize as their place of birth, citizenship, or residence. The public refers to the entire population concerned with the economic, social, and political affairs of a state, country, or even a community. In any organization or community, power entails the ability of an individual to influence other people’s behavior under either resistance or willingness of the communities. Political power enables one to control the policies and various functional units within the society. Legitimacy involves the confinement to specific rules within a community. It is a value whereby human beings recognize that an individual or something is proper.
Political science entails using many theoretical and methodological approaches like the feminists’ perspectives, rational choice, normative, Marxist, and critical theories. Other strategies used include structure and agency debates, political economy, discourse theory, comparative systems, and quantitative methods. The normative model describes how things should be correctly set up within the society, while the rational choice model explains how individuals behave in ways matching their self-interests. Feminist perspectives show the weakness of stating that their self-interest and their property drive individuals. The Marxist concept describes how economic relations in capitalist nations will eventually transform into revolutionary communism. Discourse concept shows that individuals’ behaviors identities are essential in behavior determination and participation in development issues. Political economy notes the relationship between political factors and economy in the quest for change.
The normative concept concerns criticizing and constructing acceptable philosophical concepts about a morally just political society. It focuses on what the world should be and not what the world is. The theory is determined to shaping the community into one with acceptable, desirable values. Aristotle and Plato were the founders of this theoretical concept, stating no distinction between ethics and politics. They require leaders to be morally upright and show an excellent example to their followers. Moral decisions made by the rulers are highly likely to bring a better outcome to the ruler and his people. The concept views how rulers should behave towards their followers rather than their current behavior state. It describes the standard of how humans should act in the community. Telling Corrupt leaders to stop being dishonest is an excellent example of the application of the theory.
Ideology means a group of philosophical attributes related to a group of people or an individual. In political ideology, a particular set of principles, symbols, ethical ideals, or doctrines describes how the public should cooperate and bring about a cultural and political plan. Nationalism ideology helps create unity among individuals as a nation for the country’s prosperity. Democracy dogma involves individuals recognizing political equity and following socially acceptable norms. Communism philosophy encompasses the community owning the property and not sole ownership. The Indonesian Pancasila philosophy bears five principles: national unity, democracy, civilized society, monotheism, and social justice. The Pancasila and democracy ideologies show similarities as they all encourage the spirit of harmony and national unity. The nationalism and Pancasilla beliefs motivate the public to strive towards civilized humanity, develop social authority among its members, and enhance cooperation. Communism ideology was observed in nations like Tanzania, China, Cuba, Vietnam, and Laos. It is like Pancasila’s philosophy, as they both create a spirit of equity, harmony, and unity among the public.
The constitution is a set of definitive laws and principles that govern a country, state, organization, or even a social group. The Indonesian constitution was written in 1945, and they have made several amendments to it. They did the first amendment in 1999, they reviewed the second one in 2000, while they did the fourth one in 2002. The changing world requires a review of the existing laws and thus the constitutional amendments. The constitution has laws which are the rules that regulate the action of the public and its leaders. Human rights are the fundamental freedoms that anyone in a country is empowered to enjoy, from birth until death. In Indonesia, there is a Ministry of Law and Human Rights entitled to human rights issues. The National Commission on Human Rights also helps the government to ensure the implementation of human rights.
The constitution of Indonesia stresses the right to life entitled to its citizens. It is the most crucial right as a person can enjoy no other rights without it and thus deserves all the protection. Every person is allowed to live and protect their existence at all costs. The law states that everyone has not to be subjected to torture, punishment, or inhuman, degrading treatment as it can lead to loss of life. It emphasizes that each nation’s citizen has the right to a forced loss of life and forced disappearance. The law stresses that they should subject no person to uninformed arrest, exile, or isolation. The policies safeguard the life of the citizens and avoid any killings. It issued capital penalty or even death to the murders to send a warning signal to individuals planning to kill. The right to life does not offer the prohibition of the death penalty for those found guilty of committing murder. The country protects its citizens against their lives being randomly taken away.
A nation strives to offer the protection and the needs of its citizens. God created human beings and all in the world and is termed the provider and the protector. He provides what people ask from him by prayers and protects them from the evils of this earth. Thus, people are entitled to refer to Lord as His citizens and the citizens of this world. A nation provides security towards its human beings; similarly, He offers protection to His persons. Human beings are under the rule of Almighty, who created them and put them into this biosphere. The world is the geographical destination where individuals live, while the nation is a geographical area in which man lives. Thus, a man can be referred to as a citizen of both the world and the state. In Christian and Muslims, having faith in the Almighty brings a sense of happiness in its members. In the world, trusting in the leaders, one believes they are correct, creates a sense of satisfaction. Human beings show respect to Him, who is the ruler, just like man respects his leaders.