Policing Evolution in the United States

The last two centuries have witnessed the birth and the evolution of the police force. Initially, the police physically beat and executed criminals. However, from the 1970s, there were efforts to input professionalism in the force. In addition, the commune adopted a central role in policing. The integration of the community in policing has altered the masses expectation from the police. Integration of technology has further changed the police force as it has increased its efficiency considerably. Notably, ICT has increased interaction with the community, which is central for effectual policing (National center for victims of crime, 2008).

Main types of law enforcement agencies (LEA)

State and federal authorities represent the principal classifications of Law enforcement agencies. Numerous police authorities constitute the federal agency. These agencies have varied tasks as entrenched in the law. The federal agencies include the United States Secret Service (USSS) and Drug Enforcement Authority (DEA). These agencies execute specialized tasks following their specialized training. The USSS primarily guards diplomats and the highest-ranking governmental officials. Conversely, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) primarily enquires into criminal activities. Local enforcement authorities and other non-federal agencies constitute the State police authorities. The central objective of these authorities is to uphold order in areas of jurisdiction. Notably, they handle low gravity offenses, unlike the federal authorities (Maguire, 2003).

Police recruitment and training

People join the police force for various reasons. Some are passionate about public service through disciplined forces, while others enroll in the force primarily for economic benefits. Essentially, the recruitment drive begins with an advertisement for slots in the force. Consequently, police authorities vet the applicants. The triumphant applicants commence training in various police institutes depending on the agency they join. Training equips amateurs with the required knowledge and proficiency for their tasks (Maguire, 2003).

Fundamentals law enforcers “working personality”

These elements entail “authority, danger and efficiency” (Skolnick, ND). Police officers constantly encounter danger hence they ought to be vigilant. This will enable officers to tackle any mishap that may arise. For officers to uphold integrity, they should shun any relationship with individuals they suspect could perpetrate an offense. Police authority emanates from the special dressing that police wear. This isolates the officers since citizens regard him /her as an outsider in their society. This degenerates into failure in collaboration between the police and the citizenry. This sets back community policing. Curbing crime demands that officers act in collaboration to contain any situation that arises. Therefore, the officer should act swiftly on receiving communication (Skolnick, ND).

Functions and organization of the police

The police forces’ core duty is law enforcement. However, new security threats have emerged hence the creation of authority like Homeland security. Furthermore, the police force also responds to terror threats. The proliferation of drugs not only endangers the fitness of users but also the welfare of society. The police force has the task of containing the movements of such substances. Fighting criminality involves presenting sizeable proof that would necessitate court charges. Therefore, the police personnel undertakes assorted enquiries into crime. The police force organization predominantly relies on security challenges. Where the security challenge is overwhelming, authorities deploy additional security personnel (Maguire, 2003).

Influences on police policy and styles of policing

Legislation has an enormous influence on policing since it provides the overall structure within which this disciplined force operates. The legislation impacts significantly on the policing policy since it must adhere to such superior laws. Notably, security threats also shape policing since the force must respond adequately to security challenges. The emergence of security threats has necessitated the creation of agencies to tackle such challenges. Essentially, ICT has transformed policing allowing swift response to alarm calls. In addition, it facilitates community policing by providing an avenue for interaction (Smith & Cole, 2006).


Cole, G., & Smith, C. (2006). The American system of criminal justice. Canada, CA: Cengage learning.

Maguire, E. (2003). Organizational structure in American police agencies: context, complexity, and control. Albany, NY: Suny press.

National centre for victims of crime. (2008). The evolution of community policing and information and communications technology. Web.

Skolnick, J. (ND). Police deception and brutality.

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