Tanzania is one of the developing countries in Eastern Africa. The country is vulnerable to natural pandemics like any other country in the world. Moreover, the country has a population of about 59.7 million according to the recent 2020 statistics. The country is the largest in terms of size compared to Uganda and Kenya bordering it. The purpose of the study will explore the concept of air transport equipment modernization for Tanzania People’s Defense Forces (TPDF).Consequently, the study will aim at identifying the challenges in the air transport modernization facing TPDF’s Air-force command. The study was centered on three specific objectives to achieve the study purpose. Firstly, the researcher aimed at investigating the technological, human, and financial challenges facing the TPDF’s Airforce Wing. Secondly, the study aimed at identify opportunities available that the country can adopt to enhance the performance of the Airforce Wing. Lastly, the researcher proposed various mechanisms that can be adopted to counter the challenges faced by the TPDF’s Air-Force Wing.
The researcher involved respondents within the TPDF’s sector, who responded to various questions. A sample population of 100 military personnel (respondents) was used in this research. The number was sufficient for the researcher to achieve the study objectives since the population represented significant departments within the TPDF’s Airforce Wing department. Consequently, the researcher adopted simple random sampling to select the 100 research participants. The researcher utilized interviews and questionnaires to collect data from the respondents. The questionnaires were designed in a manner consistent with general ethical research rules. Therefore, the participants consented to the information they gave, and remained synonymous.
The data collected from the participants was subjected through a validity test and recorded using Microsoft Excel 2019. The software has internal validity test that ensured internal consistency of the collected data. Analyzing the studying data helped the researcher reveal meaning from the raw data. The researcher presented responses by use of frequency tablesand graphs. Consequently, the data presented data was easy to read and interpret. The choice of Microsoft Excel 2019 was crucial since the researcher is well acquainted with software’s data analysis tools. The bar graphs and pie charts used helped in making conclusions for the research.
The study revealed that, there are a number of challenges that are associated with air transport equipment modernization in the TPDF. The identified challenges were lack of skilled personnel, financial difficulties, poor infrastructure, and lower maintenance cost as compared to modernization cost. Moreover, the research revealed that there has been consistency in strategies aimed at boosting modernity of equipment in Tanzania. For instance, the respondents revealed that there have been ongoing plans related to facility upgrading, substitution and modification of these equipment to realize modernity. The researcher identified various opportunities available for modernization of the Airforce Wing: increasing number of Tanzanian Aerospaceengineers, availability of East African, African, and global support, and presence of training fields for Airforce personnel.
Having investigated the challenges faced by the TPDF’s Airforce Wing, the researcher came up with four significant proposals to enhance its performance. Firstly, the Tanzanian government should liaise with international bodies to enhance excellent training skills among the Airforce Command. Secondly, the country should take advantage of the available regional support and communities to enhance its Airforce Wing performance. Finally, the government should take proper measures that enhance financial capability of the TPDF’s Airforce Wing. For instance, more money should be allocated to the Airforce for modernization and purchase of enhanced defense equipment. Although TPDF’s Airforce Wing faces financial, human, and technological challenges, the country can adopt various measures to enhance its performance.
Introduction and Background
The modernization of armies on a global scale is currently the main line of defense to reenergize support for uniformed personnel from a national security perspective. Military modernization is the process of altering a country’s military structure while upholding its most crucial duty to achieve a particular goal within the confines of force structure, modernization, readiness, and sustainability in order to maximize effectiveness and adapt to modern threats.
How the Research Topic Relates to the National Security
The national security is the body of a state that is used to care, protect and to defend its citizenry. The modernization of armies on a global scale is currently the main line of defense to reenergize support for uniformed personnel from a national security perspective. Military modernization is the process of upgrading existing technology and implementing new platforms to address new challenges. The military wing of the Air Force is crucial to the defense of any given nation. Zeigler et al. (2021) claim that the Airforce Wing focuses on a number of defensive areas, including precision engagement, global attacks, information superiority, and aerospace superiority. Many nations have improved their military performance thanks to the use of technology in military operations.1 For instance, the use of autopilot and auto-defensive aircraft has helped military personnel save a great number of lives.
One of the biggest and most populous nations in East Africa is Tanzania. Infrastructure in the developing nation is less sophisticated. Technical courses like aerospace engineering and other courses related to aerospace are therefore poorly taught. Tanzania is a developing nation without the resources to properly fund its armed forces. For instance, the Air Force Wing needs sophisticated aerospace gear and skilled personnel. The military of the nation plays a crucial role in protecting its borders from both internal and external intrusions. Furthermore, the country has a significant need for an advanced and modern defense system given its vast landmass. The nation’s Airforce Wing is crucial to safeguarding its aerospace. The Airforce is also in charge of making sure that no adversary nation abuses the nation’s airspace. Modern equipment, however, limits the Air Force Wing’s ability to perform its duties as effectively as it should.
Tanzania can adopt the technology to improve its military capabilities just like any other nation. However, it is challenging to improve TPDF’s performance due to technical, human, and financial constraints. Although numerous academics have discussed the value of technology in the military, little is known about the difficulties the TPDF’s Airforce Wing faces. Therefore, it is important to comprehend how the Tanzanian military has incorporated technology. The government’s interventions in creating suitable measures to address the identified challenges and, as a result, a secured Tanzanian airspace, will be informed by its understanding of the crucial technical, human, and financial challenges faced by the Air Force Wing. Additionally, a thorough capacity gaps analysis, which is crucial for allocating resources for the present and the future, can be carried out by the government (TPDF) with the aid of an understanding of the difficulties the air force wing faces.2 The national security will take part in making sure the difficulties faced by the people in these forces is well taken care of.
Background of the Study
Background Information about the Modernization of the AirForce Wing
When compared to other companies, the aircraft industry is relatively young. The Wright brothers’ powered air flights in 1903 laid the foundation for personal aviation, though the airline industry cannot be traced back to a particular moment in time. German general Count Zeppelin established an airline six years following this illustrious flight, becoming the first entrepreneur to do so. In order to serve the city’s expanding population, the Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft (DELAG), a passenger airline, was established in Frankfurt on November 16, 1909.
A four-stage model developed by Bieger and Agosti captures and distinguishes the development of the airline company. The first stage, also referred to as the “technical stage,” was in effect until the start of World War II. In the beginning, explorers had the option of traveling by air. It was difficult to find profitable airlines in this supply-side industry. Stage 2 is referred to as the political stage when it comes to international laws, agreements, and transportation standards. The development of jet aircraft in the 1950s was a major technological breakthrough that allowed the airline industry to start experiencing its enormous growth.
Since the beginning of the airline industry in the world, financial problems have plagued it. For most nations, particularly in East Africa, problems with the modernization of equipment based on advancing technology proved to be a challenge. The grounding of Swiss Air, a company renowned for its high standard of customer service, was a situation that no one would have accepted for an established airline in 2002.3 The groundeding of Swiss Air highlighted the need for airlines, regardless of age or size, to modify their business strategies in response to the evolving needs of passengers.
Worldwide efforts have been made to modernize air traffic control systems in order to ensure efficient operations, particularly for the military community. These upgrades to their air traffic control systems included things like the adoption of the air traffic control modernization project in the early 1980s and the installation of a semi-automated air traffic control system in the late 1950s. For instance, as part of the 1981 modernization effort in nations like the United States, NAS equipment and facilities were replaced and improved to match the anticipated increase in traffic volume, increase margins of safety in the air, and increase the effectiveness of the air traffic-control network. The main objective of the program was the Advanced Automation System (AAS), which would take the place of device work areas, computer hardware, and software at tower, terminal, and fait facilities.
Most nations’ airspace systems had substantial congestion and delays in the early 2000s, with one in every four aircraft being delayed. Air traffic was set to triple by 2025, which generated questions about how well the air-traffic control system could handle this increase in demand. In most nations, the JPDO was established in their constitutions to plan for and organize a transition to NextGen by a predetermined date.4 They desired improved NAS and aviation security, stability, effectiveness, quality, and accessibility from next generation as well as take advantage of new technologies and integrate data streams from multiple sources. Additionally, they wanted to support and facilitate a significant expansion of both internal and overseas transportation.
Air Transport in the Tanzanian Military Context
The current military army in Tanzania was established in 1964 and named the Tanzania People’s Defense Force. Its primary divisions are: Land Force, Navy, and Air force, Reserve Forces Command and the National Service Command. The Air Force command in its nature operates at a higher level of technology due to having sophisticated equipment in comparison with other Commands. One of its components with cross-cutting functions to other Commands is air transportation. In 21st century, Science and Technology has changed faster and has made many countries continue to modernize their Air Transport capabilities to meet the need of existing in Air Force scientific changes. Like other Air Forces, Tanzanian needs to strengthen and procure the latest aviation equipment.
It is well known that in war, victory depends on the mobility of forces and their logistics support. Success depends on the delivery of the means of war, to the right place, at the right time, in the right quantity. Resupply for a wide range of formations and weapons is vital, and time is a decisive factor. In recent times, air transport has proved its ability to provide his mobility and logistic support, regardless of obstacles, both natural and man – made. Despite all the government’s efforts and investments to modernize the tpdf, the Tanzania’s air transport sector is still facing technical, human and financial challenges.
Previous studies have largely focused on the training and development, investments in defense industries as well as the importance of military modernization with little emphasis on the challenges faced by modernization. It is for this reason, this study is justified so as to fill the existing knowledge gap. The Tanzanian air transport industry is no exemption to the human and financial challenges.5 Therefore, research on the challenges faced by the air transport industry, in the military context, will help the country’s stakeholders adopt improvement measures.
History of TPDF
The King’s African Rifles (KAR) was a multi-battalion British colonial regiment raised from Britain’s various possessions in East Africa from 1902 until independence in the 1960s. It performed both military and internal security functions within the colonial territories, and served outside these territories during the World Wars. The rank and file (askaris) were drawn from native inhabitants, while most of the officers were seconded from the British Army. When the KAR was first raised there were some Sudanese officers in the battalions raised in Uganda, and native officers were commissioned towards the end of British colonial rule.
With the independence of Tanganyika in December 1961, the two battalions of the King’s African Rifles which had been raised in the colony were transferred to the newly independent nation. These were the 6th (Tanganyika Territory) Battalion (becoming the 1st Tanganyika Rifles) and the 26th (Tanganyika Territory) Battalion (becoming the 2nd Tanganyika Rifles).Despite becoming part of the Tanganyikan military, the bulk of the officers of the regiment were still British, as had been the case in the King’s African Rifles.6 In January 1964, following the Zanzibar Revolution, the regiment mutinied. The 1st Battalion seized key points in Dar es Salaam on the 19th, deposing their officers and sending them to neighboring Kenya; on the 20th, the 2nd Battalion, in Tabora, joined the mutiny. The entire country’s military had now rebelled, with the British High Commissioner briefly detained and most of the strategic points in the capital held by the mutineers.
After appeals from the President, Julius Nyerere, the United Kingdom dispatched an aircraft carrier, HMS Centaur from Aden, with a force from the garrison there, to stand off Dar es Salaam. On the British government receiving the request in writing from Nyerere, a company of Royal Marines from No. 45 Commando were landed by helicopter in Dar es Salaam on the 25th, assaulting and quickly capturing the barracks holding the 1st Battalion; many of the mutineers quickly surrendered after a guardroom was destroyed by an anti-tank missile.Within twenty-four hours of the initial landings, and a week of the mutiny, the men of the 1st battalion were dismissed and the regiment effectively ceased to exist. The regiment was never reformed. After the union of Tanganyika with Zanzibar later that year, the previously existing army was formally disbanded, and the Tanzania People’s Defense Force was formed in September 1964, firmly under local civilian control.
The United Republic of Tanzania established its air force as the “Air Wing” (Kiswahili: UsafirashajiwaAnga) of the Tanzania People’s Defence Force’s (TPDF) Air Defence Command in 1965. This full autonomous branch, was formulated for the its purpose of supporting the TPDF ground forces and ensure air links between the government and remote areas of the country. During the Uganda–Tanzania War (1978–79), The Tanzania Air Defence Command participated in defeating the nominally stronger Uganda Army Air Force during the air campaign.
A few of the Tanzanian air wing’s transport remain serviceable. However, its Shenyang F-5s, and Chengdu F-7s are reported to fly only on rare occasions because of airworthiness problems. Tanzania’s long coastline means that transports are also used for patrol flights. In 1980, an order for 10 F-7Bs and two TF-7s was issued to China, and in 1997 also two F-7Ns were purchased from Iran, together with four ex-Iraqi Air Force transports of an unknown type.7 Today, no Russian-supplied MiG-21s remain in service with the TPDF/AW, and only three or four F-7s remain operational. The TPDF/AW MiG-21MFs are now confirmed to have carried serials – in black or green – underneath the cockpit, but no details about these are known
Recent estimates (2014) suggest that Tanzania’s air force command operates 32 aircraft in three different types. It is believed they are operating 14 fighters, 11 fixed-wing attack aircraft and 7 transport aircraft. The formation of the Tanzania Peoples’ Defense Forces, and in particular the Air Force, which was capable of responding to threats, was mandatory after Independence. This was due to the position of our country to be at the forefront of the liberation of Southern African countries as well as to fund, preserve and train groups of freedom fighters in those countries.
In 1969 the Air Force was officially launched with eight (8) aircraft, four OTTER and four CARRIBOU, this marked the initiation of air transport department as a part of the Air Force. Major changes in Air Defense equipment took place in 1970 when the Commander-in-Chief, and the first President of the United Republic of Tanzania, the late Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, recognized the need for the Air Force. After the process of finding friendly countries that would enable Tanzania to achieve that goal, the President instructed the Chief of Army Staff, General SAM Sarakikya to send a team of Officers to China and USSR. Following the reports, a group of first 48 pilots were sent to China for pilot training. They all graduated in 1973 and returned to the country. Subsequently, a fleet of 20 F-6 fighter jets from China was delivered and Air Base was established in Ngerengere, Morogoro.
The introduction of the of Air Defense tools into the Tanzania Peoples’ Defence Forces necessitated ion of a command-and-control tool that could integrated and guide Air Forces tools effectively so they could bring about the intended efficiency success. So, in 1974 the Defence Forces Headquarters was established the Chief of Air Defense (CAD) Branch, which was responsible for overseeing and coordinating military operations and training for all Air Forces Staff.
After the Kagera War (1978/79), most of the Air Transport planes faced modernization and maintenance challenges. This pushed the TPDF to introduce to its Air Transport fleet Chinese Y-12 and Y-8 aircrafts. However, due to the great advances in science, technology and modern concept of warfare, it is important to modernize the Air transport equipment and tools if the Airforce is to be able to operate efficiently and compete in the Air Transportation Industry. The above historical account shows that the TPDF has and is still evolving since its establishment. Nonetheless, air transport is still faced by operational challenges which tends to limit its efficiency and therefore warrants research intervention.
Statement of the Problem
Air transport in Tanzania covers about 945,234sq kilometers which is a large area under coverage and therefore there has been a need to modernize its equipment to enable effective results. Whereas road transport in the TPDF has proved to be of significance, the basis of air transport serves as a runaway that can help to boost security within the nation.8 However, in the recent past, challenges related to purchasing of equipment and upgrading to the latest versions has been a greater challenge.
Despite all policy and institutional measures taken by the government to modernize the TPDF with the intention of improving the force performance, technological, human and financial challenges have persistently remained and there seems to be no clear-cut answers to this disappointing state of affairs. Previous studies have largely focused on government investments in terms of research, training and development, the importance of defence industries and the formulation of policies and laws governing entire modernization process without paying attention to modernization challenges and the manner in which they hamper the TPDF’s performance. This study seeks to fill that knowledge gap.
The general objective of the study was to investigate the challenges of modernization of the Tanzania’s peoples’ defence forces.
- To investigate the technological, human, and financial challenges of modernizing the Air Force Wing
- To Examine The Airforce’s Future Plans of Modernization
- To recommend measures that can be adopted to enhance Airforce Wing performance
- What are the human, technical, and financial challenges facing TPDF’s Airforce Wing?
- What are Airforce’s Future Plans of Modernization?
- What are the measures that TPDF’s Airforce Wing can adopt to overcome the overarching challenges?
Significance of the Study
This study is worthwhile for main four reasons: The findings will help the government to appreciate and understand some critical operational challenges associated with military modernization and consequently, devise appropriate measures that can help to address them.9 Besides, the study will point out some available but unexploited opportunities that can be used to address the challenges of modernizing the Airforce wing.
Moreover, the study is timely and relevant as it feeds on the current on going government’s efforts to modernize the TPDF.
Furthermore, the findings will provide some useful pointers for future post-graduate studies. Theoretically, the findings of this study will significantly add value to the military modernization literature which remains largely sparse in developing countries like Tanzania. Practically, the findings of the study will inform both policy makers and practitioners on how best and to mobilize, utilize and allocate resources for effective military modernization more so in Tanzania’s army air transport.
Comparative Analysis of the Air Force in East Africa
The Tanzanian People’s Defense Forces have the Naval Forces, Air Force, National Building Army, People’s Military, and Ministry of Home Affairs paramilitary forces exist in Tanzania, whereas in Kenya, the Kenya Defense Forces, which also consist of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, include the Kenya Police. The National Building Army provides training to new employees for the first six months of their public service. Following their training, some graduates opt to join the regular Defense Forces.
The KDF has been working to revolutionize and expand its imports since the 2000s; since 2010, Asia, Europe, Italy, Jordan, Romania, South Africa, Western Europe, and the US have all been providers. In contrast, TPDF’s inventory consists primarily of equipment from the Soviet Union and China; China has been the TPDF’s top supplier of weapons since 2010. The TPDF compared to other defense forces in East Africa can be said to be doing better than before. Getting equipment from the Soviet Union and China means the equipment being used by they currently are good and they are at per.
Based on the first objective that has been presented above, which states that “to find the challenges for Modernization of Equipment for Air Transport in TPDF”, this sub heading aims at discussing these challenges and present them in form of tables and figures of financial difficulties, poor infrastructure, lack of skilled personnel to carry out modernization scheme and maintenance cost.
TPDF military personnel in the internal audit, and human resource were also questioned if budgetary issues were one of the obstacles to the upgrading of military air transportation equipment. Figure 1.1 displays the results of the study on financial challenges.
The results in figure 1.1 show that some 60 (60 percent) of those surveyed strongly agreed that the government was experiencing financial difficulties in disbursing funds for modernizing the air transport equipment, while 40 (40 percent) agreed. A total of 100 (100%) of the military personnel agreed that the department was in financial trouble resulting in poor strategies in upgrading their equipment. Due to little revenue, the TPDF does not perform frequent repair or modernization, as the study’s findings demonstrate.10 The culture and mentality of the military personnel towards their equipment has resulted in poor performance as most of them cannot make good use of the old air transport equipment thus resulting in poor service delivery. Therefore, insufficient funding from the government is one of the challenges facing Tanzanian Airforce Wing. The fiscal constraint has led to increased use of old equipment encumbering efficient service delivery.
Following the conclusions of Park, the air transport industry in Africa suffers from a lack of funds for servicing and modernization of equipment issues. As a result, many Africans countries have financial issues because they lack the cultural mindset to see security as a necessity for growth, but instead see it as an obvious thing. The theoretical literature analysis also supports the published report by Matimati, which states that Tanzania people Defense Force faced significant financial issues as a result of losses suffered while operating flights to and from their military based to areas of execution of their activities.
The World Bank’s unreleased report also revealed that military personnel receive less finance from the government, which results in poor performance in their modernization scheme, which in turn results in challenges. Due to little revenue, the TPDF does not perform frequent repair or modernization, as the study’s findings demonstrate. The culture and mentality of the military personnel towards their equipment has resulted in poor performance as most of them cannot make good use of the old air transport equipment thus resulting in poor service.
Poor Infrastructure Leading to High Cost of Acquiring Upgraded Equipment
Officers were questioned to present their opinion on whether poor infrastructure was a challenge influencing the modernization of equipment in the TPDF. Majority of the respondents indicated that the government had failed to invest in the modernization scheme due to poor infrastructure, therefore not seeing the significance of upgrading the tools used. The findings of the study are shown in the figure 1.2 below.
Results from Figure 1.2 reveals that 50 percent of workers agreed, 30 percent were undecided, and 20 (20 percent) strongly agreed with the statement. According to the data, 70 (70 percent) of the military Engr agreed with the assertion that, bad infrastructure is also a challenge affecting the modernization of air transport in TPDF. According to the study’s conclusions, Tanzania generally suffers from inadequate infrastructure. The quantity and kind of aircraft that may land are often constrained by a lack of adequate infrastructure. Due to inadequate infrastructure, TPDF was only able to land specific types of aircraft in particular locations. Despite the short length of the runway in Bukoba, the lack of tarmac meant that planes were unable to land there in the rainy season, resulting in flight significant lag and postponement.11 During this instance facilities included airport runways, ATC buildings, multiple runways to support the number of aircraft volumes, Safe hangers for TPDF to store their military aircrafts.
Equipment not only the plane’s tools, but also other items that are used during travel. According to the literature assessment, factors preventing the growth of local air travel include inadequate equipment and a dearth of airports in desirable locations, like the aforementioned regions. Tourists flock to western Tanzania’s Tabora and Kigoma districts for its historical landmarks and the region’s chimpanzees, but there is no air transportation available.
Lack of Skilled Personnel to Modernize the Equipment
Military personnel were required to present their opinions on whether lack of skilled personnel in the technological advancement of equipment was the main reason for challenges in the modernization of equipment in the air transport sector in Tanzania. These findings are shown in figure 1.3.
Findings from the research indicated that there were 50 (50%) military personnel who agreed; 30(30%) of those personnel strongly agreed; 10 (10%) objected; and 10(10%) of those personnel were impartial. A total of 80 employees (or 80 percent) agreed with the aforementioned statement when taken as a whole. In the investigation, part-time or low-cost workers are found to be employed by the government. This also means that the nature of the services given is not conventional. As a result, military personnel express their displeasure and voice several grievances.
Many TPDF personnel have expressed dissatisfaction with government services, particularly in the field, and attribute this in part to poor hiring practices.
According to Hanlon, government air transport face a difficult problem in differentiating their product, which is in accordance with the facts shown above.12 A military personnel experience might be the sole distinction between the two service suppliers in some circumstances. The importance of carefully selecting, training, inspiring, and rewarding officers should thus not be underestimated by the government. With such strategies, there are possibilities to realize well-trained personnel to carry out the modernization scheme. Basit (2018) noted that in addition to highlighting the influence of employee conduct, quantity and uniforms on the military image, it is also in accordance with this study.13 Motivating of the military personnel plays a vital role in enhancing their skills and knowledge thus making them deliver high skilled modernization schemes.
According to Stamolampros, Tanzania’s defense aircraft group lacks well-trained personnel in the field of modernization, prompting TPDF sector to seek technology experts from abroad, which increases operational expenses.14 Tanzania is a pricey travel destination because of its high airline operation taxes and overtaxed aviation services.
High Airline Operation Tax Increase Expenses
Employee opinions about whether increasing capital and operating fees and overtaxing flight services is a good idea making it difficult for firms to modernize their Aircraft equipment. The researcher made an assumption that, with the increasing taxation many firms lacked enough capital to upgrade their equipment, resulting in a drop in service delivery. A diagram depicting these results is shown below:
Based on a/c Engrs response above, there were 50 (50 percent) workers who agreed, 20 (20 percent) who were undecided, 10 (10 percent) who firmly agreed, and 10 (10 percent) who disagreed. A total of 60 percent of employees agreed with the assertion that, increased airline taxes in Tanzania, particularly in the TPDF, force most companies to rethink their decisions to modernize aircraft equipment. As a result of rising airline operating taxes, only a small number of companies have chosen to modernize their equipment. In addition, 20% of the employees disagreed with this statement.
Overtaxed and overtaxed aviation services contribute to challenges in modernization of firm equipment, therefore, compelling people to continue their equipment despite the malfunctions being experienced. This is supported by Charles, who claims that service tax is a challenge in a modernization plan.15 According to him, the airline industry heavily depends on third-party solutions for ground operations, aircraft maintenance, and ticketing, all of which are subject to the service tax. This leaves Indian transportation without these services vulnerable in the face of fierce competition. In addition to the already high operational costs, the government of India charges a service tax on all fares and services purchased by Indian airlines.
Low Maintenance Cost and High Modernization Cost
Respondents were asked if they regarded that the high cost of aircraft modernization was always a significant hindrance to the upgrade plans. Figure 1.5 shows the results of the investigation;
The statistics in Figure 4.4.5 reflect that 70% of workers strongly agreed with this statement that the high modernization cost as compared to maintenance cost contributed to the challenges in modernization; 20% agreed; and 10% were undecided. The study found that 90% of officers believe that the expense of modernization of their equipment is a major issue. This indicates that equipment upkeep is a major issue for the TPDF. If it is done at all, it is done inefficiently thus leading to possible occurrences of accidents. The importance of equipment maintenance cannot be overstated in the aviation.
Due to both the high expense of operating an airplane and maintaining it (which is a major issue for most airlines), there is a lot of pressure to keep their planes in good working order. Due to high maintenance costs, most equipment fails to function. At the Dar-es-Salaam airport, TPDF, a large number of its planes are dysfunctional due to lack of proper maintenance. Airlines cease contracts with airlines because of what Pat says are widespread embezzlement and mishandling of the leasing arrangement, leading to a $41.4 million debt that must be paid off by going through substantial maintenance.
As the aviation industry grows, so does the demand on accessible airspace, necessitating a greater emphasis on making the most of what is already there. Point-to-point and direct flights are predicted to grow in popularity due to the expansion of scheduled and general aviation aircraft. In addition, the rising cost of fuel is a serious issue for the whole aviation industry. Flight delays, cancellations, choke spots, inefficient operations, might rise as air transport becomes more complicated, especially when unpredictable weather and other circumstances limit airport capacity, as is the case now.16 The cost of operations will continue to rise unless there are modernization in equipment efficiency and labor productivity. In the short term, air transportation equipment modernization must take advantage of present and emerging capabilities while also laying the groundwork for meeting the stakeholder community’s future demands. The use of PBN principles can help ease some of these problems by increasing the efficiency of airspace and processes.
Based on the second objective that has been presented in chapter one, which states “Examine The Airforce’s Future Plans of Modernization”, this sub heading aims at discussing the road map and present them in form of tables and figures of modification, up gradation and substitution of the existing equipment thus equipping them with the latest technologies to realize efficiency in service delivery.
Limitations of the Study
Time constraints limited the scope of our investigation. Instead of six months, it was completed in four months, rather than the six months that had been planned for. Researchers should employ a bigger sample size in their research, which is an important pre-requisite for reliable research that aims at generalizing findings and generating conclusions about the population of study. A number of TPDF officers from Dar es Salaam were interviewed. However researcher overcome the shortcomings by ensuring that the principles of conducting social science research were strictly adhered to. Besides, the researcher, made sure that the respondents approached for interviews were reliable, well informed and experienced on matters related to air transport sector in Tanzania. Therefore, the information provided was both dependable and accurate that helped in answering the research questions for this particular.
Introduction to Literature Review
To better understand the problems related to modernization of air transportation equipment in the TPDF, this section examines both theoretical and empirical research. It begins with a brief history of Tanzania’s air transportation business, followed by an in-depth examination of the country’s current difficulties and future goals. A review of relevant literature on the TPDF’s modernization difficulties, prospects, and solutions will follow thereafter. This literature review will focus on the previous studies on the technological integration in air transport, and subsequent application on the military operations. To better understand the topic, the researcher will review the challenges facing the air transport industry in Tanzania.
The three challenges to be identified in this review are financial constraints, human resource limitations, and inadequate technological equipment within the TPDF’s Airforce Wing. The literature review will explore theoretical and empirical studies on the overarching research theme. The theoretical literature review will explore the history and scope of air transport in Tanzania. Moreover, the review will explore modernization of aircraft in the world. Furthermore, this chapter will explore challenges faced with the aircraft industry in Tanzania. Although the existing literature offer sufficient knowledge on aircraft modernization and challenges faced by the industry, the literature insufficiently explores aircraft modernization challenges faced by the TPDF’s Airforce Wing. Therefore, this study will help fill the existing gap in the literature.
Theoretical Literature Review
As the aviation industry grows, so does the demand on accessible airspace, necessitating a greater emphasis on making the most of what is already there. Point-to-point and direct flights are predicted to grow in popularity due to the expansion of scheduled and general aviation aircraft. In addition, the rising cost of fuel is a serious issue for the whole aviation industry. Flight delays, cancellations, choke spots, inefficient operations, might rise as the air transportation system becomes more complicated, especially when unpredictable weather and other circumstances limit airport capacity, as is the case now. The cost of operations will continue to rise unless there are modernization in equipment efficiency and labor productivity. In the short term, air transportation equipment modernization must take advantage of present and emerging capabilities while also laying the groundwork for meeting the stakeholder community’s future demands. The use of PBN principles can help ease some of these problems by increasing the efficiency of airspace and processes.
Air Transport in Tanzania
According to the IATA Annual Report of 2011, it is estimated that the Tanzanian aviation sector generated USD 18 billion in 2010.17 A decade of ups and downs has left the sector more resilient and effective than ever. Passenger yields climbed by 6.1% despite the fact that the capacity was raised by 5.2 percent. Growth in Tanzania’s economy has led to increasing international and domestic air traffic as a consequence of improving market conditions in key aviation markets.
According to the International Air Transport Association’s annual report, Tanzania’s overall passenger traffic climbed by 9.9 percent from 2,754,355 in 2009 to 3,027,512 passengers in 2010. From 2009 to 2010, the number of aircraft movements grew by 8.1% from 167,610 to 181,240. As nations recover from the global financial crisis, their success has been linked to a better global economy.
The IATA’s 2011 Annual Report similarly shows that, international aviation traffic increased by 22.6% in 2010 after declining by 8.6% in 2009.18 In 2010, there were 28,941 aircraft movements, up from 23,611 in 2009. From 15,611 scheduled movements in 2009 to 21,316 scheduled movements in 2010, there was a 36.1% increase in scheduled movements. In 2010, the number of foreign passengers transported grew by 9.7 percent from 1,262,216 to 1,384,855. International airports had a rise of 5.8% in aircraft movements in 2010, while domestic airports saw an increase of 7.0% in 2009. In 2010, the number of transactions handled increased from 143,999 to 152,299, a 17% increase. According to IATA’s 2011 Annual Report, domestic passenger traffic grew by 10.1% from 1,492,139 to 1,642,657 passengers between 2009 and 2010.
ITC’s 2012 annual report states that Precision Air Services is the only national carrier of the United Republic of Tanzania, having satisfied all of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s standards for a National Carrier (ICAO).19 Prior to Precision Air Services Limited entering service in March 2011, there were no other Tanzanian carriers operating regular international and local flights while also maintaining the country’s most extensive domestic network. Additionally, Precision Air Services Limited was the sole recognized airline industry standard for operational safety as of March 2011 under IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA). There was just one Tanzanian airline in the IATA clearing house in March 2011: Precision Air.20 IATA membership allows Precision Air to collaborate and work with the world’s largest international carriers, allowing them to lift Precision Air customers on their flights and vice versa.
Aircraft Equipment Modernization in the World
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, it is estimated that in 1998, the direct contribution of civil aviation (including airlines, commercial air transport operations, and their affiliates) amounted to US$ 370 billion. Even in wealthy countries like the United States, where air travel is a major component of both military and personal life, civil aviation contributes significantly to the GDP. A rising tide lifts all boats as air travel becomes more accessible to those living in underdeveloped countries. Aviation is a key component of the world’s infrastructure, according to Park 1.657 billion people-or almost a quarter of the world’s population-and 34.5 million tons of freight were transported by the world’s 896 scheduled airlines in 2003.21 Almost 40% of the world’s manufactured exports and over half of the more than 714 million international tourists were carried by the industry. Since it is predicted that freight transportation would account for as much as 80% by value in the globe by 2014, it is likely to grow in prominence.
According to Park, investments in the renovation and extension of high-quality aviation equipment must be made over a lengthy period of time to support the expected modernization plan.22 For example, it is anticipated that from 2015 to 2030, the world would need to invest USD 1.8 trillion on airport modernization and equipment upgrade. With about 73.74% in modernization scheme to satisfy future demand, reduce travel time, and increase service predictability and dependability, investment in aviation infrastructure is set to realize its full exploit. Modernization in air transport equipment promotes public trust that flying is safe, secure and ecologically responsible.
According to Park, most of the aviation sector’s infrastructure expenditures (runways, airport terminals, and air traffic control) have been paid for by the business itself rather than being subsidized by taxation or public investment by their respective government.23 In addition to user fees and other income sources, infrastructure expenditures have been paid for by the air transport business itself. As a result, airlines and their customers are expected to contribute USD 136 billion in tax collections in 2018, which is around 45 percent of the industry’s gross domestic product (firm-level equivalent to GDP).
According to Estache (2014), the airline sector has had declining income returns (the sector’s equivalent of pricing) but also growing overall revenues for much of the previous 30 years, signifying a higher volume in terms of customer journeys and freight handled.24 As a result of substantial deregulation and the introduction of a large number of new companies, the industry was able to increase its overall revenues by 28% in the decade leading up to 2003. Passenger kilometers climbed by 4.3% and freight ton-kilometers by 6.5% between 1991 and 2002, respectively, for the scheduled airlines’ traffic.
Challenges for Modernization of Equipment for Air Transport in Tanzania
Published reports from June 2013 revealed that TPDF had significant financial issues, in part due to losses that were experienced when performing military flights.25 The study further indicated that TPDF has for a long time been faced with a crisis in the modernization of their equipment due to lack of enough funding from the government. In August 2013, a Tanzanian publication stated that the TPDF s “desperately” needed a $32 million rescue package from the Tanzanian government or other non-shareholder sources from Tanzania for them to fully upgrade their military aircraft equipment.
According to an unpublished World Bank report, the absence of airports in potential destinations, including those stated above, is a major obstacle to the expansion of domestic air transportation.26 With the inability to expand the air transport sector, it follows that there has been no need to modernize the equipment being used thus pausing a challenge. Tourists flock to western Tanzania’s Tabora and Kigoma districts for its historical landmarks and the region’s chimpanzees, but there is no air transportation available. This has resulted to the existing challenges in the modernization of the air transport equipment.
The unpublished report prepared for the World Bank further showed that military personnel in the organization receive less finance from the government, which results in poor performance in their modernization scheme, which in turn results in challenges.27 Due to little revenue, the airline does not perform frequent repair or modernization, as the study’s findings demonstrate. The culture and mentality of the military personnel towards their equipment has resulted in poor performance as most of them cannot make good use of the old air transport equipment thus resulting in poor service delivery.
Following the conclusions of Park (2014), the air transport industry in Africa suffers from a lack of funds for servicing and modernization of equipment issues.28 As a result, many Africans countries have financial issues because they lack the cultural mindset to see security as a necessity for growth, but instead see it as an obvious thing. The theoretical literature analysis also supports the published report by Estache, which states that Tanzania people Defense Force faced significant financial issues as a result of losses suffered while operating flights to and from their military based to areas of execution of their activities.29
According to Aviation Safety Network, as of September 2014, the air transport sector had experienced incidents or accidents that were linked to poor modernization plans in the air transport equipment as follows:
- On the 26th of July, 1999, a Let L-410UVP-E9 with the tail number 5H-PAB performed a belly landing at Arusha Airport while practicing touch and go. Two members of the flight crew and three passengers were not hurt however. This accident was linked to a faulty aircraft engine due to lack of modernization.
- On 16th November 2004, during a training flight at Kilimanjaro Airport, a Let L-410UVP-E20, with the tail number 5H-PAC, crashed and burst into flames. Facial injuries occurred to the two pilots who had not put on their shoulder belts. This incident was associated with lack of modernization on the propellers and the aircraft engine.30
- On 8 July 2007, at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport’s runway 06, an ATR 72-212, tail number 5H-PAR, experienced a runway excursion. To the right of Taxiway F it deviated and ended up in the ditch. This accident was linked to the Nose-wheel failure due to lack of modernization and upgrading of the part. However, no one on board, including the four members of the crew and the 62 passengers, was hurt. The damage to the plane was significant. Reverse thrust applied on landing may have resulted in this incident. The levers of power were stuck in a single place.31
- On 10 July 2014, an ATR 72-500, with the tail number 5H-PWA, was flying from Mwanza to Dar es Salaam when the number 2 engine spat out. As a result, a flight to Kilimanjaro International Airport was required. However, after selecting ground idle, the aircraft swerved to the left and exited runway 09, hitting one of runway edge lights, before rolling over the grass field parallel to runway 09 for 180 meters before reclaiming the runway, as explained by the captain. However, there were no reports of any injuries. The accident was later cited to fault in number 2 engine of the aircraft which was yet to be modernized.32
According to Michael, TPDF’s air transport sector faces an uncertain future after an audit indicated that the airline’s liabilities currently surpassed its assets by TZS83.14billion (USD53million).33 The first large-scale military air Transport in Tanzania was recently obliged to ask the government for a USD32 million bailout after reporting losses of USD18 million for its most recent financial year.
This section is dealing with identifying the research gaps deduced from challenges and road map for air transport equipment modernization for Tanzania People Defense Force. Tretheway conducted research and found that there are several problems that must be overcome in order to modernize air transport equipment in the United States.34 Expatriates and tourists to other countries avoid flying because of the high number of mishaps, incidents, delays, and cancellations in the industry resulting from faulty equipment that have not been upgraded. In modern industrialized countries, citizens are warned against travelling on particular airlines or within specific countries. Some corporations and organizations even prohibit their staff from flying on certain airlines. This is because, such airlines have been facing many challenges that have hindered their ability to modernize their air transport equipment thus pausing greater chances of accidents and delays.
However, because this study is based on data from a first-world nation that is also a global economic superpower, it cannot be compared to the Tanzanian case. This is due to the fact that first-world nations are more developed and have established norms, whereas our underdeveloped countries do not. According to Robin, a Nigerian researcher, there is a paucity of airline services in Africa. Researchers wanted to know if a lack of airplane service was preventing Africa from reaching the industrialized state and having a well modernized air transport sector.35 An office sample of 409 Nigerian National Aviation Offices employees was used for the study. A lack of dependable air transportation can significantly limit access to a developing country, according to new research. Confidence in the national government and local businesses might be further eroded by this. The survey found that investors and visitors will go elsewhere. Because of this, both nations’ economy are doomed for the time being. In the future, the gap between industrialized and developing countries will widen.
According to Charles of India, the passenger traffic transported by scheduled domestic flights during January-July 2021 increased by 1.74 percent over the same year in 2011, but the sector nevertheless suffered huge losses.36 The research further indicated that such negativity was much associated with the use of faulty equipment in the air transport sector and a consequent lack of skilled personnel in the upgradation and modernization of Airforce wing. The following are only a few of the various reasons for these losses: When it comes to running an airline, ATF is a huge expense. Fuel expenditures account for roughly 45 percent of overall operating costs for Indian operators, compared to 34 percent for the majority of operators elsewhere in the globe. This is mostly due to state governments around the country charging exorbitant amounts of tax on ATF. ATF is taxed at rates ranging from 25% to 30% depending on where you live. It was also prohibited until very recently to bring directly imported ATF into the United States. With such high expenses to be incurred, India had resolved to the use of traditional air transport equipment rather than carrying out an upgradation scheme.
Additionally, service tax was shown to be a challenge by Charles in his research. He contended that Indian aviation tickets are subject to a 12.36 percent service tax.37 Third-party services like ticketing, aircraft maintenance, and ground handling, all of which are subject to service tax, are widely used by aviation sector participants, putting Indian operators at a disadvantage in the face of fierce competition. This service tax on plane tickets and on the services acquired by Indian airline operators adds even more to the costs of running an airline in the country limiting possible plans on modernization and upgradation of equipment. However, because this study is based on data from a first-world nation (India) that is also a global economic superpower, it cannot be compared to the Tanzanian case. This is due to the fact that first-world nations are more developed and have established norms, whereas our underdeveloped countries do not.
According to research by Andrew in Egypt, there are some services or obstacles that no airline can avoid.38 The Egyptian railway system is putting up a stiff fight against air travel thus limiting efforts by air transport investors to upgrade their equipment. Many measures were taken to improve the country’s train service in response to the entrance of low-cost air carriers. Many new trains have been introduced with enhanced service quality, providing customers an excellent alternative to flying. However, overall air passenger traffic is increasing, but this has had a detrimental impact on traffic. Therefore, many air transport service providers are forced to focus on the use of “traditional” equipment rather than upgrading them to their modern form due to lack of funding.
The survey also found that technical improvements in the sector of telecommunication had essentially eliminated the necessity for equipment modernization. To save time and money, corporations are increasingly relying on communication technologies like video conferencing. As a result, aviation passenger traffic has been significantly impacted by virtual communication capabilities, particularly in foreign flights.
According to research by Peter, there is fierce rivalry in the aviation business that leaves companies powerless.39 Botswana airlines are forced to lower tickets to compete for market share because of high operational expenses and a price-conscious customer base. This situation has a significant impact on the modernization plans as companies cannot easily raise the required funds to upgrade their air transport equipment. The airline sector has entered into a pricing war as a result of its proclivity for luring customers in with appealing discounts and inexpensive rates.
According to research by Chen in the Democratic Republic of Congo, airline operators and the economy suffer greatly from aircraft delays associated with the use of faulty “traditional” equipment.40 Delays cost money, time, and missed demand since they dissuade many flying travelers. Due to the importance of air travel in connecting people with their workplaces, delays in flights have a ripple effect across the economy.
Synthesis of Literature Gap
According to the literature examined, many challenges have been studied in connection to lack of modernity in air transport equipment in both government-owned and privately-owned airlines. This has also been investigated in the context of both developed and developing nations. However, in the case of TPDF, there has been no research that has discovered the challenges and the road map for equipment modernization. An additional area of research that has not yet been addressed is that of studies that were undertaken in the past.
There is therefore a need to performing research on modernizing equipment based on time, technology, and globalization in recent years, such as Peter’s 2015 study.41 Poor advancement in technology and slow growth in modernization has also been associated with the challenges in the modernization of equipment both in TPDF and Tanzania as a country. A further study gap can be discovered by looking at studies done in industrialized nations, such as those in the United States. After the research is completed, we hope to fill in the huge information gap by evaluating the challenges and road map for equipment modernization faced by TPDF.
This section discussed in detail the methods used to conduct the study. These methods are organized under the following sub-sections which entail research design, data collection and analysis, research instruments, sampling techniques, the population and the area of study
Area of Study
It is critical that the research explicitly explains the study of topic and define the research area throughout the planning stage.42 This research was carried out in Dar Es Salaam at TPDF offices. The financial and time limits purposely led the study’s execution in Dar Es-Salaam. TPDF Dar Es-Salaam area was selected based on the areas indicators of challenges associated with modernization of air transport equipment.
Data collection, organization and analysis are all aspects of research design that are examined in this study in order to maximize its usefulness.43 It was decided to employ a case study in this study since it allowed for an accurate picture of individuals, events, and situations.44 The research was carried out using a case study approach. It is a method for gathering and analyzing data within an organization. Data gathering methods might be tailored to the study’s needs under this approach. This design was significant since it allowed for a more in-depth investigation of the issue at hand.
This study used the mixed methodologies using a combination of quantitative and qualitative data gathering and analysis approaches.45 Rather of isolating the quantitative and qualitative methodologies, it was preferable to exploit their compatibility for complimentary and integrative objectives.46 Since quantitative approaches rely on science to provide their “objectivity,” this adds to science’s overall quality of things.47 This allowed for in-depth analysis and evaluation of the challenge and road map for air transport equipment in Tanzania (TPDF).
In the interdisciplinary field of population study, data from various data collection techniques, including population censuses, registration methods, sampling, and other systems of data sources, are analyzed, determined, addressed, and forecasted population challenges and trends. TPDF officers were included in the study’s population, which was estimated at 1567 in January 2022.
When conducting research, a sample is a group of people from which information may be drawn and conclusions can be drawn.48 Sample size should be determined by taking into account the availability of the population, sampling procedures, and financial resources necessary to facilitate a particular study.49 A total of 100 TPDF officers from various departments were included in this study’s sample. This included approximately 15 employees from each department of information system, flight operation, quality and safety, human resource and training, Special Flight and engineering in the TPDF Dar es Salaam. Because the number of TPDF personnel is limited to about 2456, the sample size was chosen to be representative of that population. With little resources and a short deadline, it was easy to handle the sample size. Table 3.1 shows the composition of the test sample. A representative sample of 100 employees was expected.
Table 3.1: Summary of the Sample Composition for the Study Respondents
|Departments||Number of Respondents|
|Quality and safety||15|
|Human resource and training||20|
Sample and Sampling Procedures
Sampling is the process of picking a subset of the population such that the subset can be utilized to draw conclusions about the population as a whole.50 Additionally, Kothari indicates that sampling allows for the generalization of the data obtained to an enormous population.51Non-probability and probability sampling methods were employed to choose employees. Random sampling and purposive sampling are the examples of this type of sampling that were utilized.
Simple Stochastic Sampling
A simple arbitrary sample is a smaller group of individuals selected at random and with equal probability from a population. This technique involves picking a sample at random. In SRS, each subset of n individuals seems to have a similar likelihood of just being chosen for the sample as every other subset of n individuals. A simple random sample is an objective sampling strategy. A more complex sampling technique may incorporate simpler random sampling, which is a fundamental type of sampling. In choosing the members of TPDF, some of the people were chosen at a random, those who had same age and same height were chosen and taken to the training camps.
Purposive sampling, also referred to as judgment sampling, is a type of sampling where the author conducted their own discretion to select survey respondents from the demography. The elements of the analyst choose the analysis based on how well it fits with applicability to the research question. Researchers frequently believe they can obtain a representative sample by using sound judgment in order to save time and money. On picking the members for TPDF, the researcher would simply look at a person who looked fit for the military and took them away. If one was young and energetic, it was always obvious they would be taken.
It is possible to cross-validate information and data from a range of sources by employing more than one approach, according to Afolayan.52 In order to obtain as much data as possible, the researcher employed a triangulation strategy that relies on information from several sources. As a result, a variety of methods, including document analysis, interviews, questionnaires, and direct observation, were employed.
This entails looking through previously published materials on the subject under investigation. By comparing and enhancing evidence from other sources, the papers can provide a deeper understanding of the program being researched. An annual performance report, strategy plan, and reports on human resources, as well as service plans and human resource policies in the TPDF, were all examined as part of this research.
Interviewing is a method of gathering information in which participants are interrogated orally, either one at a time or in groups. In particular, this approach was utilized to explain complex concepts to lower-level staff who required a little help understanding the jargon.
Researchers may use this to collect data from a huge number of people. Even though some TPDF officers may have had difficulty scheduling an interview because of their hectic work schedules, the use of a questionnaire was a logical choice. As an added benefit, the use of questionnaires helped preserve participant privacy and minimized interview bias. The use of questionnaire was significant as it allowed the researcher to collect data from the respondents in a logical manner.
Observation includes research methods that involve systematically observing and documenting the behavior of living things, objects, or occurrences. It was employed in this study to observe staff’ reactions to consumers as well as their physical working environment. This method of data collection proved to be economical as it allowed to save on the cost of the research.
Data Collection Method
The study drew on both primary and secondary sources for its findings. There was a specified set of questions and a predetermined technique of recording in the main data, which was a structured interview. A questionnaire was also used because some of the officers’ did not have enough time to participate in an interview. Accordingly, the study relied mostly on reports, profiles, and journals from TPDF’s headquarters and many other publications that offered material to assist the research.
Data Analysis and Presentation
Rather than a quantitative technique, this study employed a qualitative inductive approach to examine the effects of fund control strategy on Tanzania’s efficacy of fund regulation. In thematic analysis, only the most important aspects and case are recognized. SPSS Statistical Programs for Social Science) was also used to provide data on the frequency and totals. Statistical charts and graphs such as bar graphs and tables were used to portray the data.
Reliability and Validity Tests
Reliability: Reliability is a measure of the consistency of test finding.53 Cronbach’s alpha was used to check the data’s internal consistency and make sure it was reliable. We used a 0.7 Cronbach’s alpha (ά) test cutoff, which Surucu describes as an appropriate test scale.
Validity Test: A study’s validity, according to Saunders (2018), may be determined by looking at whether or not the findings actually pertain to what they purport to.54 An evaluation of the test’s ability to assess what it is aimed at measuring. A pilot study of 10 respondents from TPDF was done to ensure the validity of the data gathering device. In order to improve the questionnaire, the responses of the respondents were included into the design
Study Findings, Analysis and Discussion
The purpose of this chapter is to present, analyze, and debate the results of the research on challenges and a road map for the modernization of air transport equipment in the TPDF. For specific study aims, the findings are explained in detail. As a starting point, we will discuss the findings pertaining to the respondent’s profile.
Presentation of Findings on Respondents’ Profile
The respondent findings have been used in this analysis to tell how the mentioned characteristics helped in the analysis. From the respondent, one is able to tell the age of the people who were recruited for TPDF, their education level, the time they stayed at the military, department they were in and their functions they performed while at the military. One could easily tell about this people just by listening to the respondent.
Age of the Respondents
According to Table 3.1, there were a total of 100 TPDF military personnel who participated in the research. Following is a breakdown of the respondents’ ages, as seen in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1: Age of Respondents
|50 and above||10||10.0|
Results from table 4.1 shows that 50% of the overall workforce was between the ages of 20 and 29, while 30% were between the ages of 30 and 39. In addition, 10 (10 percent) employees (TPDF personnel) were between the ages of 40 and 49, and 10 (10 percent) were beyond the age of 50.
Table 4.1 shows the demographic characteristics of the respondents for the study. It is clear that the majority of them are energetic and youthful, indicating that they are likely to move about a lot in search of a good job that would allow them to live a good life. If they are fully exploited, this age group is the perfect age group to enhance the Defenseof the country because of their energetic, ambitious and innovative nature. Simply utilize them as a means for TPDF to improve the performance, and consider them an excellent opportunity. If they are not well-managed, many young people who recently graduated from college are inclined to put their own personal aims and desires ahead of those of the country. When it comes to the performance of an organization and its employees, Paais asserted that a company’s success or failure is directly related to its ability to manage its young generation.55
Findings from this research let us gain a clearer view of the difficulties and road map for the upgrading of transportation equipment in the TPDF. Retaining youthful and enthusiastic staff has always been a good thing and a bad thing, depending on the circumstances. Paais supports these claims. Young employees, he says, are looking for a better quality of life.56 To keep these personnel, employers need to pay them a competitive compensation, because they are seen to be highly productive and successful workers. Employee mobility and turnover have long been a major factor in their motivations and goals.
Survey respondents were asked to provide a rough estimate of their education level. The results are shown in the following table (Figure 4.1).
Figure 4.1 shows that 60% of the workforce had a bachelor’s degree, while 20% had a diploma and a further 20% (20%) had a master’s degree. This means that a large percentage of those who took part in the survey are well-educated and, as a result, are familiar with the vast majority of the ideas covered in the survey. As a result, questionnaires have been a primary data gathering method in the study.
According to the data shown above, the majority of those surveyed were well-educated, and as a result, their views on the challenges and road map for the TPDF equipment modernization in the aviation sector were mixed. In addition, the level of education of the personnel assured the quality and dependability of the information provided. Unless culture and conventions take precedence, Mubarok agrees with the preceding results in that the greater a respondent’s educational attainment, the more likely it is that the information he or she provides will be accurate and relevant to the questions addressed.57
In order to assess Tanzania’s aviation industry’s possible prospects and problems, it is critical to have prior work experience. As shown in Figure 4.2, research on working experiences indicates the following:
Approximately 40% of the participants in this research had worked for less than three years. A total of 40 people (or 40%) had been employed for at least six years. Finally, there were 10 employees with less than a year of experience who were categorized as “freshers” for their lack of experience.
According to this study, the majority of respondents have worked in the Airforce for a long enough period of time to have a favorable or negative outlook on the TPDF chances and difficulties. As a result of these results, 10 percent of the workforce has less than a year’s worth of experience, indicating that there is room for growth in terms of hiring new personnel. Employee turnover and mobility are prevalent in privately owned businesses, according to Vinod.58 It does, however, point to certain possible issues and difficulties that employees may face. Research found that it is prevalent but should not be at a tremendous quantity.
Roles of Respondents
Participants were asked to identify their positions at TPDF. Figure 4.3 depicts the findings in this regard.
A total of 30 (30%) personnel were classified as military personnel, while another 30 (30%) were supervisors, as shown in figure 4.3. Additionally, 20 percent of the workforce was made up of staff officers, 10 percent of whom were department heads, and the other 10 percent were section leaders. The results shown here show that the study was representative because it included military personnel from all the Airforce Wing departments. As shown in Figure 4.4, the challenges of modernizing revealed in the research were legitimate and reliable since the military personnel were identified from all departments.
The research participants were asked to identify their department. Figure 4.4 reveals the answer to this question.
The engineering department had 10 workers (10%), while the Special Flight department had 10 people (10%), according to the study’s findings. In addition, 10 percent of the ground staff, 10 percent of the flight crew, and 10 percent of the information system staff worked on the trip. Additionally, 10 (10 percent) personnel from the legal department, 10 (10 percent) from the finance department, and 10 (10 percent) from the internal audit department were included in the research. In addition, ten percent of the human resources and training staff was participating, as were ten percent of the quality and safety staff as well. It is clear from these findings that all of the departments, particularly those in TPDF, were included in the research. As a consequence, the findings of this study were accurate and dependable since they included the challenges and road map for modernization of air transport equipment from all areas.
According to Sterne, research is regarded genuine and credible if it is free of biases. He makes the same reasoning as the previous author.59 Furthermore, when the study encompasses a wide range of departments, each department has its own unique challenges and opportunities, as well as a unique perspective.
Findings, Analysis and Discussion as per study Objectives
The findings, analysis, and discussion are provided in light of the objectives of the study, which were outlined in chapter one.
Modification of Aircraft Equipment
Aircraft Engrs were asked to provide their thoughts on whether modification of aircraft equipment was strategic plan that being invested by the government in modernizing air transport equipment. The findings are shown in the figure below:
According to Figure 4.14, 40(40 percent) of the 100 workers who participated in the survey agreed, 30 (30 percent) strongly agreed, and 30(30 percent) disagreed. A/c Maintenance Engrs agreed that a lack of airports in possible locations is an issue for the organization, with 70% of the workforce agreeing with the assertion. The results above indicate that the Tanzanian government has fully invested in modification of air transport equipment as a road map towards modernization. With the country has very few military airports and the existing equipment are not yet modernized to cope and be able to compete with other military sector in other countries.
The findings also indicate that the airports that are considered to be the international airports are also in constant modification and repair to realize modernity. With the government having focused more on the TPDF equipment modernization, other sectors have been left vulnerable to accidents and failure of equipment. This is supported by the findings of Makubo as indicated in the literature review that, the country has small and poor quality plans that only allow certain types of military planes to land.60 While taking off from Tanzania’s Kigoma airport in 2015, a Dash 8-300 aircraft with 35 passengers and four crew members slid off the runway. Due to a wing and engine swerve, the Air Tanzania Company Limited aircraft was forced off the runway. It was on its way to Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’s commercial hub, through Tabora.
Upgradation of Air Transport Equipment
The respondents were asked to indicate in the provided questionnaire if there are continuing plans in upgradation of air transport equipment as a strategy to modernize air transport equipment. The findings from the analyzed responses have been provided below:
Table 4.12: Upgradation of Air Transport Equipment
On the other hand, according to the data in figure 4.15 a whopping 60 per cent of Maintenance Engrs strongly agreed, 30 per cent agreed, and 10 per cent were undecided according to the data, a total of 90 percent of TPDF personnel agreed with the claim that there were ongoing strategies by the government to modernize air transport equipment in the TPDF by upgrading the existing equipment to their modern form.
The findings above depict that despite the challenges facing the air transport sector in modernization of their equipment, there still exist plans to upgrade the existing tools to realize effective service. Currently, the TPDF is utilizing all the opportunities coming their way to upgrade their equipment. Studies have shown that the TPDF in Dar Es Salaam has called upon investors with interest of boosting their equipment through modernization to help them realize effective service.
Research conducted by Shen et al. found that in the aviation business, selecting the appropriate upgrade channels is critical to achieving the company’s aim of maintaining peace.61 When it comes to upgrading airlines, ICT has always been a major consideration. Hanlon adds weight to this argument by arguing that modernizing air transportation equipment is essential to achieving this goal.62 When American Airlines introduced the first computer reservation system (CRS) in the 1950s, it signaled a shift in the ticket distribution industry. Intermediaries like travel agencies have access to information and may book a variety of touristic items like plane tickets and hotel rooms all around the world thanks to general distribution network.
Substitution of Existing Equipment
Officers were asked to provide their thoughts on whether substitution of existing aircraft equipment was important for modernization of air transport. The findings are shown below;
As seen in figure 4.15, sixty-five percent of officers strongly agreed, thirty-three percent agreed, while ten percent of officers were unsure. A total of 90 out of the TPDF a/c maintenance Engrs agreed with the findings that with the statement that most air transport companies are currently substituting their equipment as a strategy to modernize them. The findings above are in line with Hanlon who claimed that the discovery of natural gas in Mtwara provides a fundamental potential ability for substitution of air transport equipment, but only if the available opportunities are put into place.63The airline sector in Tanzania, based on the facts above, still has a lot of room to develop and stabilize in the near future by investing in the substitution scheme. By comparison, in 2010 between 600,000 and 700,000 people visited the nation each year, as reported by URT. (URT). The increased number of tourists in the nation gives greater opportunity for the growth of the aviation equipment substitution.
Measures to overcome the Challenges Facing the Air Transport Operation
Based on the specific objective three which indicated that, to determine measures to overcome challenges facing modernization of equipment in the TPDF. Respondents were invited to provide possible solutions to the modernization issues. Figure 4.17 depicts the study’s findings as follows:
A variety of metrics were provided by the respondents based on their best understanding, as shown in Figure 4.17. 20 percent of the respondents indicated that the government should lower taxes, 19 percent said that infrastructures should be upgraded, and 13 percent said that education for employees should be provided. A further 7% of respondents thought the government and organization should form a cooperation with the aviation industry to further their goals. Moreover, 6 (6%) of those polled said that the organization and the government should work together to combat corruption. 5(5 percent) of the respondents said that the airline sector needs better personnel relations, while another 5(5 percent) said that appropriate government policy is needed to keep the business functioning smoothly. Reduction of bureaucracy by 44%, increase in inter-airline meetings by 44%, and a steady electrical supply by 44% are the top three responses, with 33% saying that fuel prices should be decreased as the worst answer. The government should promote local airlines, according to 22% of respondents, and the airline should look into employing qualified staff, according to another 22%.
Government taxes have a significant impact on the growth of the aviation, according to conclusions from the research. As a result, the sector is being compelled to raise its prices and operating costs due to tax problems thus lacking enough funds to modernize equipment. As a result of the government’s increased fees, most air transport companies are forced to raise its transportation prices, which in turn lowers the chances of investing in acquiring modernity in their air transport equipment.
According to Michel, air transport equipment modernization has been hindered by rising fuel prices and taxes, in addition to currency changes, and lack of an aviation expert.64 This might be regarded as a direct or indirect consequence, for example, the increasing taxes would eventually lead to a shortage of finances for the implementation of modernization initiatives that have been devised. As a result of the rising costs of fuel, taxes, and other fees, the number of passengers flying with this airline will decline as they switch to cheaper options from other parts of the country.
Proposed Measures to Resolve the Identified Challenges Faced
The respondents were well conversant with the challenges faced by the AirForce wing. Therefore, the researcher subjected them to several questions about what they proposed as the most effective measures to resolve the identified challenges. The respondents were given a set of questions rather than giving their personal opinions. The researcher designed the questions based on the challenges identified during the literature review. Moreover, the researcher designed close-ended questions to first identify the most prevailing challenges in the Airforce. Consequently, the respondents were expected to answer yes or no. Table 4.2 below shows the asked questions and the number of responses.
Table 4.2: Filed Data
|Question: What do you think are the challenges facing modernization of the TPDF|
|I agree that the Airforce has enough equipment||16||34||15||35|
|The available equipment is outdated and insufficient||40||10||17||33|
|The force does not have enough trained personnel||38||12||35||15|
|The current infrastructure is sufficient||17||33||21||29|
|The force has adequate resources in terms of quality||10||40||11||39|
The total number of respondents who was asked about the status of the TPDF’s resources were100. The respondents were categorized as either officers or men. A total of 50 males and 50 females responded to the asked questions. Seemingly, a good percentage of the respondents were of the view that the sector lacked sufficient resources in terms of technical and human.65 Based on the responses the researcher categorized the answers as summarized in table 4.3 below.
Table 4.3: Filed Data
|Outdated and Insufficient Equipment||47||43|
|Absence of Trained Personnel||73||27|
|Adequate Quality Resources||21||79|
Based on figure 4.15 above the majority, 79%, of the respondents claimed that the quality of the infrastructural resources was poor. By poor, the respondents meant that the majority of the equipment was irregularly serviced. Another problem that closely followed the absence of quality equipment was the absence of trained personnel, with 73% of the respondents claiming that the people working in TPDF’s Airforce Wing had insufficient skills. Therefore the major problems, in order of priority, facing TPDF’s AirForce Wing are the absence of quality resources (79%), unskilled personnel (73%), insufficient equipment (69%), and insufficient infrastructure (62%), and outdated equipment (47%). Therefore, TPDF’s major problem was the absence of quality resources that propel the effective execution of the sector’s mission. The researcher, based on the responses, asked the respondents their suggested proposed changes to counter the existing challenges.
The respondents involved in the study had been working with AirForce for more than five years. Most of them operate in the infrastructural department while others operate in other departments. Therefore, the researcher believed that the respondents could help in identifying proposed measures to overcome the identified major challenges as summarized in figure 4.15above.The researcher, upon identifying the challenges, designed a set of questions with possible measures to be undertaken. The questions subjected to the respondents were as shown in table 4.4 below.
Table 4.4: Proposed measures
|Question: Do you think the following proposed measures will help solve the challenges?|
|Investment in the infrastructural development||45||5||30||20|
|Recruiting qualified staff members||40||10||38||12|
|Introducing incentives scheme||30||20||25||25|
|Good working conditions||27||23||31||19|
|Procurement of modern equipment||46||4||38||12|
The total number of respondents who gave their opinions on the proposed measures was 100. An equal number of males and females responded to the researcher’s suggested measures to overcome the existing challenges identified. The measures were be summarized as shown in table 4.5 below: infrastructural development, qualified staff, incentive scheme, good working conditions, modern equipment procurement, oversea exposure, and salary increase.
Table 4.5: Filed Data
|Good working conditions||58||42|
|Modern equipment procurement||84||16|
The respondents agreed or disagreed with the researcher’s proposed measures. The most significant measure to overcome the identified challenges was the procurement of modern equipment. The majority of the respondents agreed that procuring new and modern equipment will help solve the problems facing TPDF’s AirForce Wing. Infrastructural development and recruitment of qualified staff were also agreed to by the participants. Meanwhile, three proposed measures were not prioritized by the participants: incentive schemes, salary increases, and good working conditions. Increased salary and conducive working environment motivate the employees (Ekhsan et al., 2019). However, the respondents agreed that salary increase and good working conditions could not solve the problems facing TPDF’s AirForce Wing.
Moreover, the majority of the employees agreed that their working conditions were good. Since the major problem facing the sector was insufficient equipment and the presence of unqualified personnel, the respondents disregarded the introduction of incentive schemes and improvement of the working conditions. The relevant stakeholders were encouraged to tackle the problem based on priority. While the major problem facing TPDF is the absence of quality resources, the most preferred measure is the procurement of modern equipment.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In this chapter, the key conclusions of the study are summarized, and they are linked to Tanzania’s People Defense Force’s challenges and future plan for the modernization of air transport equipment. Furthermore, it includes ideas to adopt to enhance the TPDF and proposes topics for additional research.
The first objective for the research aimed at evaluating the perception on the challenges facing airforce wing in TPDF sector in Tanzania. The findings of the study further revealed that there are significant challenges in the modernization of air transport equipment which have been discussed in the context of financial difficulties, taxes, poor infrastructure, lack of skilled personnel, over taxed increases in fare and currency fluctuation.
The other side of the research looked at the road map for the modernization of air transport equipment in TPDF. The research revealed that there has been consistency in strategies aimed at boosting modernity of equipment in Tanzania. For instance, the study indicated that there have been ongoing plans related to upgradation, substitution and modification of these equipment to realize modernity. Despite the challenges facing the air transport sector in modernization of their equipment, there still exist plans to upgrade the existing tools to realize effective service delivery. Currently, the TPDF is utilizing all the opportunities to upgrade their equipment. Studies have shown that the TPDF in Dar-es Salaam has called upon investors with interest of boosting their equipment through modernization to help them realize effective service. Additionally, there has been efforts by the government to hire skilled personnel in the field of modernization to equip the local engineer with the required knowledge on the subject, modernization of air transport equipment modernization.
The third objective for the research aimed at analyzing the measures available to overcome the challenges facing the modernization of equipment in the air transport sector. The findings for the study revealed that there is a need to educate members on the modernization to equip them with skills, hiring of skilled personnel, reducing taxes, ensuring stable electricity supply and cutting down on corruption scandals in the country.
In addition, the research included the methodology used in obtaining data. The methods included were organized under the following sub-sections which entail research design, data collection and analysis, research instruments, sampling techniques, the population and the area of study. There were a number of theoretical framework that guided the whole research and made sure everything went as planned. There were individuals who cooperated and gave us the information that we needed in order to complete the whole study.
The study revealed that, there are a number of challenges that are associated with air transport equipment modernization in the TPDF. This challenges, according to the research includes lack of skilled personnel, financial difficulties, poor infrastructure, taxes and lower maintenance cost as compared to modernization cost. The other side of the research looked at the road map for the modernization of air transport equipment in TPDF. The research revealed that there has been consistency in strategies aimed at boosting modernity of equipment in Tanzania. For instance, the study indicated that there have been ongoing plans related to upgradation, substitution and modification of these equipment to realize modernity. Training officers, reducing bureaucracy, having a stable electricity supply, lowering fuel costs, improving the management system, and hiring qualified personnel are some of the measures that can be taken to overcome the challenges that the TPDF is facing.
From the above findings, it can be concluded that despite its importance in the growth of the country and its many obstacles, there are a number of short-term and long-term challenges related to equipment modernization that has to be addressed. Community culture or public perception of service was clearly one of the most significant issues. Government over-taxation and financial constrains have played a major role in creating a wide range of challenges, both directly and indirectly. The rising cost of transportation can be attributed to both the rising price of oil and the rising cost of fuel due to currency instability and excessive taxes which have led to lack of enough funding.
Because of these issues, employees have been underpaid, which has led to poor performance of lack of the necessary knowledge and expertise in the field of modernization. Despite the difficulties there are several potential that have yet to be fully realized, including long- and short-term ones like terminal development, regional integration, an expanding economy, and expanding industries like tourism and gas and fuel. However, the Tanzanian government has had tremendous strategies to realize effective modernization of equipment especially in the TPDF by engaging in road map such as modification, substitution and upgradation of equipment to realize modernity.
In light of the problems outlined above, a number of recommendations were made; In order to help train and educate the staff on how modification, substitution and upgradation of air transport equipment is done; an aviation school recognized by the government should be created. This, in turn, will need the hiring of more qualified and skilled aviation workers to help equip TPDF personnel with the skills. This indeed will create more employment to many people of Tanzania.
Investing in human capital is also encouraged, providing scholarships in the TPDF personnel and assuring the retention of skilled personnel’s. This strategy is aimed at creating highly skilled personnel to ensure modernization of equipment being used. Establishment of good relationship with the government so that fuel and tax costs may be decreased, which in turn lowers air transportation costs, would allow more aviation sector to accumulate enough funding to enhance and upgrade their air transport equipment to their efficient form of use which is free from accidents.
In addition, it was suggested that the national security to be linked with the Tanzania people defense force in order for them to maintain a good relationship. The government should come in to make sure there exists a proper and efficient security maintenance and no citizen would be harmed. The national security should take part in those exercise to make sure peace and order is maintained.
Areas of Further Studies
The Tanzania People’s Defense Force Dar Es Salaam offices were studied in order to generate a conclusion that is assumed to be true of all other TPDF branches. As a result, a larger study can be conducted to determine whether the conclusion reached in this study is true of all TPDF branches.
Afolayan, Michael Sunday, and OmoladeAdeyemiOniyinde. “Interviews and questionnaires as legal research instruments.” JL Pol’y& Globalization 83 (2019): 51.
Amirrudin, Muhammad, KhoirunnisaNasution, and SupaharSupahar. “Effect of Variability on Cronbach Alpha Reliability in Research Practice.” JurnalMatematika, StatistikadanKomputasi 17, no. 2 (2021): 223-230.
Andrade, Chittaranjan. “Internal, external, and ecological validity in research design, conduct, and evaluation.” Indian journal of psychological medicine 40, no. 5 (2018): 498-499.
Basias, Nikolaos, and YannisPollalis. “Quantitative and qualitative research in business & technology: Justifying a suitable research methodology.” Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research 7 (2018): 91-105.
Basit, A. Abdul, TinnekeHermina, and Muslim Al Kautsar. “The Influence of Internal Motivation and Work Environment on Employee Productivity.” KnE Social Sciences (2018).
Belobaba, Peter, AmedeoOdoni, and Cynthia Barnhart, eds. The global airline industry. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
Bhardwaj, Pooja. “Types of sampling in research.” Journal of the Practice of Cardiovascular Sciences 5, no. 3 (2019): 157.
Bieger, R. and Agosti, J.Nine Solutions to Ease Congestion in Dar Es Salaam Ready to go Package; An Article, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2015
Bisignani, Giovanni. “Director General & CEO International Air Transport Association Annual Report 2011 67th Annual General Meeting.”
Carruthers, Robin, RangaRajanKrishnamani, and Siobhan Murray. “Improving connectivity: investing in transport infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa.” AICD Background Paper 7, no. 6 (2019).
Charles D., “Coverage, Sample Design, and Weighting in Three Federal Surveys” in Journal of Drug Issues, October, 2016.
Chen, Changfeng. “Identifying significant factors influencing consumer trust in an online travel site.” Information Technology & Tourism 8, no. 3-4 (2016): 197-214.
Clark, Kevin R., and Beth L. Vealé. “Strategies to enhance data collection and analysis in qualitative research.” Radiologic technology 89, no. 5 (2018): 482CT-485CT.
Cohen, L., D. Manion, and K. Morrison. “Research methods in Education. New York: Rutledge.” (2017).
Consultancy, Jacobs. “New Kigali Airport Business and Financial Analysis.” (2017).
Cr, Kothari. “Research methodology methods and techniques.” (2020).
Ekhsan, M., Aeni, N., Parashakti, R., &Fahlevi, M. (2019). The Impact Of Motivation, Work Satisfaction And Compensation On Employee’s ProductivityIn Coal Companies. In 2019 1st International Conference on Engineering and Management in Industrial System (ICOEMIS 2019) (pp. 406-415). Atlantis Press.
Estache, Antonio, and Ginés De Rus, eds. Privatization and regulation of transport infrastructure: guidelines for policymakers and regulators. World Bank Publications, 2018.
Hanlon, H.C. “The Cost of Traffic Accidents in Singapore. Paper Presented at the Ninth International”, 2017
Holtzclaw, John. Using residential patterns and transit to decrease auto dependence and costs. Vol. 11. San Francisco: Natural Resources Defense Council, 2017.
Hutchison, William D. “Sequential sampling to determine population density.” Handbook of sampling methods for arthropods in agriculture (2020): 207-243.
Kothari, C. “research methodology methods and techniques by CR Kothari.” Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers 91 (2017).
Kusunya, Emmanuel. “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 539-546.
Liu, Shielan, and Michael Henderson. “An Overview on Methodologies for Tailings Dam Breach Study.”
Makubo, Fiona. “Assessment of the Airline Industry in Tanzania, Potential Opportunities and Challenges: A case of Precision Air.” PhD diss., 2015.
Matimati, Upendo Thomas. “The impact of service quality on customer satisfaction in airline industry: A Case Study of Kilimanjaro International Airport (KIA).” PhD diss. The Open University of Tanzania, 2020.
Michel. (2013). “Air Transport in Western and Central Africa—Fact and Issues.” Interim Version 10.
Mubarok, EndangSaefuddin, and JuwikoDarmawan. “The influence of training, motivation, and work ethics on the internal communication and their impact on the employee performance.” European Journal of Business and Management 11, no. 24 (2019).
O’Hanlon, Ardal. Global airlines: Competition in a transnational industry. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2017.
Paais, Maartje, and Jozef R. Pattiruhu. “Effect of motivation, leadership, and organizational culture on satisfaction and employee performance.” The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business 7, no. 8 (2020): 577-588.
Pakdil, Fatma, and ÖzlemAydın. “Expectations and perceptions in airline services: An analysis using weighted SERVQUAL scores.” Journal of Air Transport Management 13, no. 4 (2017): 229-237.
Park, Jin-Woo, Rodger Robertson, and Cheng-Lung Wu. “The effect of airline service quality on passengers’ behavioural intentions: a Korean case study.” Journal of Air Transport Management 10, no. 6 (2014): 435-439.
Ramachandran, J., and K. S. Manikandan. “ITC limited: India first.” (2012).
Sheehan, T. and Oclott, K. Road Traffic Accidents: Rescue and Extrication, 26thNational Conference Held on December1st-2nd 2011 in Arusha, Tanzania, 2011
Shen, Chao, and YazkhiruniYahya. “The impact of service quality and price on passengers’ loyalty towards low-cost airlines: The Southeast Asia perspective.” Journal of Air Transport Management 91 (2021): 101966.
Sim, Julius, Benjamin Saunders, Jackie Waterfield, and Tom Kingstone. “Can sample size in qualitative research be determined a priori?.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology 21, no. 5 (2018): 619-634.
Stamolampros, Panagiotis, and NikolaosKorfiatis. “Airline service quality and economic factors: An ARDL approach on US airlines.” Journal of Air Transport Management 77 (2019): 24-31.
Sterne, Jonathan AC, Miguel A. Hernán, Alexandra McAleenan, Barnaby C. Reeves, and Julian PT Higgins. “Assessing risk of bias in a non‐randomized study.” Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (2019): 621-641.
Sürücü, Lütfi, and Ahmet MASLAKÇI. “Validity and reliability in quantitative research.” Business & Management Studies: An International Journal 8, no. 3 (2020): 2694-2726.
Taherdoost, Hamed. “Sampling methods in research methodology; how to choose a sampling technique for research.” How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research (April 10, 2016) (2016).
Tretheway, Mike, and Kate Markhvida. “Airports in the aviation value chain: financing, returns, risk and investment.” (2018).
Vinod, Ben. Evolution of Yield Management in the Airline Industry. Springer International Publishing, 2021.
Zeigler, S. M., Harting, S., Bae, S. J., Brackup, J., & Vick, A. J. (2021). Aligning Roles and Missions for Future Multidomain Warfare. RAND Corporation. Web.
Zhang, Anming, and Andrew Yuen. “Airport policy and performance in mainland China and Hong Kong.” (2018).
Questionnaire for Respondents
It is the goal of this survey to gather information on challenges and road map for air transport equipment modernization in TPDF. The information you provide will be used solely to further the goals of this research, which is why it is strictly a research project for academics only. Confidentiality and anonymity of the information you give is guaranteed. I would want to ask for your help and involvement in order to make this project a success.
Respondent Personal Information
(Please circle the appropriate answer)
|2||Highest level in education|| |
|3||Primary respondent role|| |
|4||For How long have you been in the TPDF?|| |
|5||What department are you working?|| |
Please choose a score for each question.
The scores are according to the following scale.
- Strongly agree 5
- Agree 4
- Neutral 3
- Disagree 2
- Strongly disagree 1
Challenges in Modernization of Air Transport Equipment in Tpdf
Kindly provide your response on the challenges in modernization of air transport equipment in TPDF
Please choose a score for each question.
High modernization cost is a major challenge affecting equipment modernization in TPDF:
- Strongly agree 5
- Agree 4
- Neutral 3
- Disagree 2
- Strongly disagree 1
The taxes charged are among the serious challenges impeding the TPDF running.
- Strongly agree 5
- Agree 4
- Neutral 3
- Disagree 2
- Strongly disagree 1
Poor infrastructure is a challenge in the modernization of equipment in air transport in the TPDF
- Strongly agree 5
- Agree 4
- Neutral 3
- Disagree 2
- Strongly disagree 1
Tanzania lacks skilled personnel who can carry out modernization plans in the air transport equipment
- Strongly agree 5
- Agree 4
- Neutral 3
- Disagree 2
- Strongly disagree 1
Higher airline operation taxes and over-taxed aviation services make Tanzania lack funds to perform modernization strategies
- Strongly agree 5
- Agree 4
- Neutral 3
- Disagree 2
- Strongly disagree 1
What other challenges do you see in Air Transport in the TPDF?
Road Map for Air Transport Equipment Modernization in Tpdf
There are strategies by the TPDF to carry out modification on the air transport equipment as a road map for air transport equipment modernization
- Strongly agree 5
- Agree 4
- Neutral 3
- Disagree 2
- Strongly disagree 1
There are strategies by the TPDF to carry out substitution of the air transport equipment as a road map for air transport equipment modernization
- Strongly agree 5
- Agree 4
- Neutral 3
- Disagree 2
- Strongly disagree 1
There are strategies by the TPDF to carry out upgradation of the air transport equipment as a road map for air transport equipment modernization
- Strongly agree 5
- Agree 4
- Neutral 3
- Disagree 2
- Strongly disagree 1
Measure to Overcome the Challenges Air Transport Equipment Modernization
Propose strategies for overcoming the challenges experienced by the TPDF in efforts to modernize their Air Transport equipment.
- 1 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 539.
- 2 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 540.
- 3 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 539.
- 4 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 540.
- 5 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 541.
- 6 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 542.
- 7 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 543
- 8 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 544
- 9 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 545
- 10 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 545.
- 11 Zhang, Anming, and Andrew Yuen.”Airport policy and performance in mainland China and Hong Kong.” (2018).
- 12Hanlon, H.C. “The Cost of Traffic Accidents in Singapore. Paper Presented at the Ninth International”, 2017
- 13Basit, A. Abdul, TinnekeHermina, and Muslim Al Kautsar.”The Influence of Internal Motivation and Work Environment on Employee Productivity.” KnE Social Sciences (2018).
- 14 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 546.
- 15 Emmanuel Kusunya, “Challenges Facing Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among People Living With Hiv/Aids. A Case of Dodoma City and Kongwa District in Tanzania”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 10, no. 02 (2022): 540.
- 16 Hanlon, H.C. “The Cost of Traffic Accidents in Singapore. Paper Presented at the Ninth International”, 2017
- 17Bisignani, Giovanni. “Director General & CEO International Air Transport Association Annual Report 2011 67th Annual General Meeting.”
- 18Bisignani, Giovanni. “Director General & CEO International Air Transport Association Annual Report 2011 67th Annual General Meeting.”
- 19Ramachandran, J., and K. S. Manikandan. “ITC limited: India first.” (2012).
- 20Ramachandran, J., and K. S. Manikandan. “ITC limited: India first.” (2012).
- 21Park, Jin-Woo, Rodger Robertson, and Cheng-Lung Wu. “The effect of airline service quality on passengers’ behavioural intentions: a Korean case study.” Journal of Air Transport Management 10, no. 6 (2004): 435-439.
- 22Park, Jin-Woo, Rodger Robertson, and Cheng-Lung Wu. “The effect of airline service quality on passengers’ behavioural intentions: a Korean case study.” Journal of Air Transport Management 10, no. 6 (2004): 435-439.
- 23Park, Jin-Woo, Rodger Robertson, and Cheng-Lung Wu. “The effect of airline service quality on passengers’ behavioural intentions: a Korean case study.” Journal of Air Transport Management 10, no. 6 (2004): 435-439.
- 24Estache, Antonio, and Ginés De Rus, eds. Privatization and regulation of transport infrastructure: guidelines for policymakers and regulators. World Bank Publications, 2018.
- 25Unpublished report prepared for the World Bank, Washington, D.C. August.2016.
- 26Unpublished report prepared for the World Bank, Washington, D.C. August.2016.
- 27Unpublished report prepared for the World Bank, Washington, D.C. August.2016.
- 28Park, Jin-Woo, Rodger Robertson, and Cheng-Lung Wu. “The effect of airline service quality on passengers’ behavioural intentions: a Korean case study.” Journal of Air Transport Management 10, no. 6 (2014): 435-439.
- 29Estache, Antonio, and Ginés De Rus, eds. Privatization and regulation of transport infrastructure: guidelines for policymakers and regulators. World Bank Publications, 2018.
- 30Ramachandran, J., and K. S. Manikandan. “ITC limited: India first.” (2012).
- 31Ramachandran, J., and K. S. Manikandan. “ITC limited: India first.” (2012).
- 32Ramachandran, J., and K. S. Manikandan. “ITC limited: India first.” (2012).
- 33Michel. (2013). “Air Transport in Western and Central Africa—Fact and Issues.” Interim Version 10.
- 34Tretheway, Mike, and Kate Markhvida. “Airports in the aviation value chain: financing, returns, risk and investment.” (2013).
- 35Carruthers, Robin, RangaRajanKrishnamani, and Siobhan Murray. “Improving connectivity: investing in transport infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa.” AICD Background Paper 7, no. 6 (2019).
- 36Charles D., “Coverage, Sample Design, and Weighting in Three Federal Surveys” in Journal of Drug Issues, October, 2016.
- 37Charles D., “Coverage, Sample” October, 2016.
- 38Zhang, Anming, and Andrew Yuen.”Airport policy and performance in mainland China and Hong Kong.” (2018).
- 39Belobaba, Peter, AmedeoOdoni, and Cynthia Barnhart, eds. The global airline industry.John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
- 40Chen, Changfeng. “Identifying significant factors influencing consumer trust in an online travel site.” Information Technology & Tourism 8, no. 3-4 (2016): 197-214.
- 41Belobaba, Peter, AmedeoOdoni, and Cynthia Barnhart, eds. The global airline industry.John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
- 42Cohen, L., D. Manion, and K. Morrison.”Research methods in Education. New York: Rutledge.” (2017).
- 43Taherdoost, Hamed.”Sampling methods in research methodology; how to choose a sampling technique for research.” How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research (April 10, 2016) (2016).
- 44Kothari, C. “research methodology methods and techniques by CR Kothari.” Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers 91 (2017).
- 45Clark, Kevin R., and Beth L. Vealé.”Strategies to enhance data collection and analysis in qualitative research.” Radiologic technology 89, no. 5 (2018): 482CT-485CT.
- 46Basias, Nikolaos, and YannisPollalis. “Quantitative and qualitative research in business & technology: Justifying a suitable research methodology.” Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research 7 (2018): 91-105.
- 47Kothari, C. “research methodology methods and techniques by CR Kothari.” Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers 91 (2017).
- 48Cr, Kothari. “Research methodology methods and techniques.” (2020).
- 49Bhardwaj, Pooja. “Types of sampling in research.” Journal of the Practice of Cardiovascular Sciences 5, no. 3 (2019): 157.
- 50Kothari, C. “research methodology methods and techniques by CR Kothari.” Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers 91 (2017).
- 51Cr, Kothari. “Research methodology methods and techniques.” (2020).
- 52Afolayan, Michael Sunday, and OmoladeAdeyemiOniyinde.”Interviews and questionnaires as legal research instruments.” JL Pol’y& Globalization 83 (2019): 51.
- 53Amirrudin, Muhammad, KhoirunnisaNasution, and SupaharSupahar.”Effect of Variability on Cronbach Alpha Reliability in Research Practice.” JurnalMatematika, StatistikadanKomputasi 17, no. 2 (2021): 223-230.
- 54Sim, Julius, Benjamin Saunders, Jackie Waterfield, and Tom Kingstone. “Can sample size in qualitative research be determined a priori?” International Journal of Social Research Methodology 21, no. 5 (2018): 619-634.
- 55Paais, Maartje, and Jozef R. Pattiruhu.”Effect of motivation, leadership, and organizational culture on satisfaction and employee performance.” The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business 7, no. 8 (2020): 577-588.
- 56Paais, Maartje, and Jozef R. Pattiruhu.”Effect of motivation, leadership, and organizational culture on satisfaction and employee performance.” The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business 7, no. 8 (2020): 577-588.
- 57Mubarok, EndangSaefuddin, and JuwikoDarmawan.”The influence of training, motivation, and work ethics on the internal communication and their impact on the employee performance.” European Journal of Business and Management 11, no. 24 (2019).
- 58Vinod, Ben. Evolution of Yield Management in the Airline Industry.Springer International Publishing, 2021.
- 59Sterne, Jonathan AC, Miguel A. Hernán, Alexandra McAleenan, Barnaby C. Reeves, and Julian PT Higgins.”Assessing risk of bias in a non‐randomized study.” Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (2019): 621-641.
- 60Makubo, Fiona. “Assessment of the Airline Industry in Tanzania, Potential Opportunities and Challenges: A case of Precision Air.” PhD diss., 2015.
- 61Shen, Chao, and YazkhiruniYahya. “The impact of service quality and price on passengers’ loyalty towards low-cost airlines: The Southeast Asia perspective.” Journal of Air Transport Management 91 (2021): 101966.
- 62Hanlon, H.C. “The Cost of Traffic Accidents in Singapore. Paper Presented at the Ninth International”, 2017
- 63Hanlon, H.C. “The Cost of Traffic Accidents in Singapore. Paper Presented at the Ninth International”, 2017
- 64 Michel. (2013). “Air Transport in Western and Central Africa—Fact and Issues.” Interim Version 10.
- 65 Michel. (2013). “Air Transport in Western and Central Africa—Fact and Issues.” Interim Version 10.