The modernization of armies globally is now at the front line of defense. According to Zeigler et al. (2021), the Air-force Wing focuses on various defensive areas1. Tanzania is one of East Africa’s largest and most highly populated countries. The country is developing and has less advanced infrastructure. Being a developing country, Tanzania lacks sufficient financial capability to equip its military. Understanding how the Tanzanian military has integrated technology is significant. Modern equipment impairs the Air Force Wing’s capability to carry out its functions as it ought to effectively. In addition, understanding the challenges facing the air-force wing helps the government (PDF) to conduct a comprehensive capacity gap analysis.
The Problem Statement
Whereas road transport in the PDF has proved to be of significance, the basis of air transport serves as a runaway that can help to boost security within the nation. However, in the recent past, purchasing equipment and upgrading them to the latest versions have been a greater challenge. Air transport in Tanzania covers about 945,234sq kilometers, a large area under cover, and therefore, there has been a need to modernize its equipment to enable effective results. Despite all policy and institutional measures taken by the government to modernize the TPDF to improve the force performance, technological, human, and financial challenges have persistently remained, and there seem to be no clear-cut answers to this disappointing state of affairs. Previous studies have largely focused on government investments in research, training, and development, the importance of defense industries, and the formulation of policies and laws governing the modernization process without paying attention to modernization challenges and how they hamper the TPDF’s performance. This study seeks to fill that knowledge gap.
Objectives or Research Questions
The study’s general objective was to investigate the challenges of modernization of the Tanzania peoples’ defense forces. The objective was to examine the technological, human, and financial challenges of modernizing the Air Force Wing. Additionally, it aimed to investigate the air force’s modernization plans and recommend measures to enhance the Air-force Wing’s performance.
This research selected the Dar es Salaam area based on the area’s indicators of challenges associated with the modernization of air transport equipment. The research was carried out using a case study approach, a method for gathering and analyzing data within an organization. This design was significant since it allowed for a more in-depth investigation of the issue. Instead of isolating the quantitative and qualitative methodologies, exploiting their compatibility for complementary and integrative objectives was preferred. A population is a collection of people who share at least one trait of interest to the researcher.
PDF officers were included in the study’s population, estimated at 1567 in January of 2022. The number of PDF personnel is limited to about 2456, so the sample size was chosen to represent that population. Sampling is the process of picking a subset of the population such that the subset can be utilized to conclude the population as a whole2. As a result, various methods, including document analysis, interviews, questionnaires, and direct observation, were employed. Research Instruments Interviewing is a method of gathering information in which participants are interrogated orally, either one at a time or in groups. Observation includes research methods that involve observing and documenting the behavior of living things, objects, or occurrences. Data collection methods were also used to save on the cost of the research.
Observation includes research methods that systematically observe and document the behavior of living things, objects, or occurrences. In thematic analysis, only the most important aspects and cases are recognized. This study examined the fund control strategy’s effects on Tanzania’s fund regulation efficacy. A pilot study of 10 respondents from PDF was done to ensure the validity of the data-gathering device. Cronbach’s alpha was used to check the data’s internal consistency and ensure it was reliable.
Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
Air Transport in Tanzania Although the existing literature offers sufficient knowledge on aircraft modernization and challenges faced by the industry, the literature specifically explores aircraft modernization challenges faced by the TPDF’s Air-force Wing. Tanzania’s economy has led to increasing international and domestic air traffic. According to the International Air Transport Association’s annual report, Tanzania’s overall passenger traffic increased by 9.9 percent from 2,754,355 in 2009 to 3,027,512 passengers in 2010. In 2010, there were 28,941 aircraft movements, up from 23,611 in 2009. As nations recover from the global financial crisis, their success has been linked to a better global economy.
In 2010, the number of transactions handled increased from 143,999 to 152,299, a 17% increase. International airports had a rise of 5.8% in aircraft movements in 2010, while domestic airports saw an increase of 7.0% in 2009. Precision Air was just one Tanzanian airline in the IATA clearing house in March 2011. Even in wealthy countries like the United States, where air travel is a major component of military and personal life, civil aviation contributes significantly to the GDP. Modernization in air transport equipment promotes public trust that flying is safe, secure, and ecologically worthwhile. From 2015 to 2030, the world would need to invest USD 1.8 trillion in airport modernization and equipment upgrades. Privatization and regulation of transport infrastructure: guidelines for policymakers and regulators. World Bank Publications, 2018.
Tanzania’s Air Transport Department (TPDF) is facing a crisis in the modernization of its equipment due to a lack of funding from the government. PDF needs a $32 million rescue package from the Tanzanian government or other non-shareholder sources from Tanzania to upgrade their military aircraft equipment fully. Tanzania’s military personnel in the organization receive less funding from the government, which results in poor performance in their modernization scheme. The African Air transport industry suffers from a lack of funds for servicing and modernization of equipment. [Unpublished report prepared for the World Bank, Washington, D.C. August.2016.] As of September 2014, Tanzania’s air transport sector had experienced incidents or accidents linked to poor modernization plans in the air transport equipment.
As a result, many African countries have financial issues because they lack the cultural mindset to see security as a necessity for growth but instead see it as an obvious thing—World Bank: Privatization and regulation of transport infrastructure: guidelines for policymakers and regulators. According to research by Andrew in Egypt, there are some services or obstacles that no airline can avoid3. The Egyptian railway system is putting up a fight against air travel, thus limiting efforts by air transport investors to upgrade their equipment. According to Chen, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, airline operators and the economy suffer greatly from aircraft delays associated with faulty “traditional” equipment. There is a fierce rivalry in the aviation business that leaves companies powerless. of the forced to lower tickets to compete for market share.
There is a need to research modernizing equipment based on time, technology, and globalization in Tanzania. The existing literature provides sufficient information on the history of air transport in Tanzania and air transport modernization across the world. After the research is completed, we hope to fill in the huge information gap by evaluating the challenges and road map for equipment modernization faced by PDF. A further study gap can be discovered by looking at studies done in industrialized nations, such as the U.S. The reviewed literature applies reliable and valid data that is persuasive for the study area.
The existing literature provides insufficient information on the aircraft industry in Tanzania, specifically in Military utilization. The existing literature is biased, as it focuses on the modernization of the global aircraft industry. This study proposes measures that TPDF’s Air-force Wing can adopt, making it more significant than the existing literature. Zhang and Yuen, 2018, discussed various challenges beyond avoidance in aerospace navigation4. Although the existing literature provides sufficie18nt information on the history and modernization of airspace transport, the literature is subject to bias.
Analysis of Findings
The study findings are linked to the TPDF’s challenges and plan to modernize their equipment. Despite the challenges facing the air transport sector, plans still exist to upgrade the existing tools to realize effective service delivery. In this chapter, the study’s key conclusions are summarized and linked to Tanzania’s People Defense Force’s challenges and plan for the modernization of air transport equipment. However, because this study is based on data from a first-world nation that is also a global economic superpower, it cannot be compared to the Tanzania case. The Egyptian railway system is putting up a stiff fight against air travel, thus limiting efforts by air transport investors to upgrade their equipment. However, because this study is based on data from a first-world nation (India) that is also a global economic superpower, it cannot be compared to the Tanzanian case. Several challenges are associated with air transport equipment modernization in Tanzania. These challenges include a lack of skilled personnel, financial difficulties, poor infrastructure, taxes, and lower maintenance costs compared to modernization costs.
Government over-taxation and financial constraints have played a major role in creating a wide range of challenges, both directly and indirectly. The rising cost of transportation can be attributed to the rising price of oil and the rising cost of fuel due to currency instability and excessive taxes, which have led to a lack of funding. The Tanzania People’s Defense Force Dar es Salaam offices were studied to generate a conclusion that is assumed to be true of all other PDF branches. This strategy aims to create highly skilled personnel to ensure the modernization of the equipment being used. Investing in human capital was also encouraged, as was providing scholarships to the PDF personnel and assuring the retention of skilled personnel.
The study’s findings reveal significant challenges facing the air transport sector in Tanzania, including financial difficulties, poor infrastructure, and a lack of skilled personnel. Furthermore, it includes ideas to adopt, enhance the PDF performance, and proposes topics for additional research.
These include a lack of skilled personnel, financial difficulties, poor infrastructure, taxes, and lower maintenance costs compared to modernization costs. Government over-taxation and financial constraints have played a major role in creating a wide range of challenges, both directly and indirectly. The rising cost of transportation can be attributed to the rising price of oil and fuel due to currency instability and excessive taxes, which have led to a lack of funding. Some recommendations were made to overcome the challenges that the PDF is facing. However, the Tanzanian government has had tremendous strategies to realize effective equipment modernization, especially in the PDF, by engaging in the road map leading to modification, substitution, and upgrading equipment to realize modernity.
The Tanzania People’s Defense Force Dar es Salaam offices were studied to generate a conclusion that is assumed to be true of all other PDF branches. For instance, the study indicated that there had been ongoing plans related to upgrading, substituting, and modifying this equipment to realize modernity. Investing in human capital was also encouraged, as was providing scholarships to the PDF personnel and assuring the retention of skilled personnel.
The study’s conclusions are connected to the TPDF’s issues and future strategies for equipment modernization. The study’s preliminary results are detailed in this chapter and are related to Tanzania’s People Defense Force’s issues and future strategy for modern air transport equipment. There are several issues involved with modernizing air transport equipment in Tanzania. This includes a lack of competent employees, financial issues, insufficient infrastructure, taxation, and a reduced maintenance cost as compared to the cost of modernization. Despite the issues the air transport business faces, there are initiatives to enhance existing instruments to ensure successful service delivery.
Atia, Marwa A., Toka M. Fahmy, and Hamida A. Mohammed. “The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Employees’ Organizational Commitment in Egyptian Airlines.” Journal of the Faculty of Tourism and Hotels-University of Sadat City Vol 1, no. 2/1 (2017).
Stehman, Stephen V., and W. Scott Overton. “Spatial sampling.” In Practical handbook of spatial statistics, pp. 31-63. CRC Press, 2020.
Zeigler, Sean M., Sarah Harting, Sebastian Joon Bae, Julia Brackup, and Alan J. Vick. Aligning Roles and Missions for Future Multidomain Warfare. RAND Corporation, 2021.
Zhang, Anming, and Andrew Yuen. “Airport policy and performance in mainland China and Hong Kong.” (2008).
- 1 Zeigler, Sean M., Sarah Harting, Sebastian Joon Bae, Julia Brackup, and Alan J. Vick. Aligning Roles and Missions for Future Multidomain Warfare. RAND Corporation, 2021.
- 2 Stehman, Stephen V., and W. Scott Overton. “Spatial sampling.” In Practical handbook of spatial statistics, pp. 31-63. CRC Press, 2020.
- 3 Atia, Marwa A., Toka M. Fahmy, and Hamida A. Mohammed. “The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Employees’ Organizational Commitment in Egyptian Airlines.” Journal of the Faculty of Tourism and Hotels-University of Sadat City Vol 1, no. 2/1 (2017).
- 4 Zhang, Anming, and Andrew Yuen. “Airport policy and performance in mainland China and Hong Kong.” (2008).