Immigration refers to the movement of people into places that they are not natives (Anderson 24). Immigration takes place because of political, social and economic problems, natural disasters and unfavorable weather or climate. In 2006, the International organization for immigration estimated that there were more than 200 million immigrants in the world.
According to statistics, Europe was host to more than 70 million immigrants, followed by North America with approximately 45 million immigrants (Anderson 26). Asia was host to about 25 million immigrants. The rate of immigration is expected to rise in the future as more people migrate to other countries and regions to look for opportunities to improve their lives.
Causes of immigration
Immigration is caused by economic, social and political constraints, natural disasters and unfavorable climate or weather conditions (Anderson 38). A large portion of the world’s population lives in countries whose governments and political systems are corrupt. These governments do little to eradicate the sadness and misery that people encounter in their daily lives. In addition, such political systems propagate poverty and inequality. People migrate to look for peace and opportunities to improve their economic status.
In certain countries, the government regulates the job market, thereby limiting the number of job opportunities available to people in certain fields (Shah par3). Many people migrate to look for job opportunities that are not available in their native country. In addition to looking for jobs, many people migrate to other countries to further their education.
The standard of education in most second and third world countries are wanting. Therefore, people migrate to countries that have well-established colleges and universities that provide quality education. Students migrate to pursue educational scholarships offered by their government or international organizations. Current unfulfilled needs in the international labor market encourage and create a favorable environment for immigration (Anderson 39).
Religious persecution and war are common occurrences that are caused by religious intolerance and political instability. In the Middle East, most people have left their countries because of religious persecution (Shah par4). There is widespread religious persecution among Muslims, Christians, and Jews. In warring countries, the economy is poor and the quality of other amenities such as health care is very low. People migrate to find places that have peace and that offer better social amenities.
Effects of immigration
Immigration has advantages and disadvantages. Most people migrate to search for job opportunities to improve their financial status. They take any job that is offered and do not mind how much they earn. This is beneficial to businesses and organizations in the host country because immigrants are willing to do jobs that natives decline (Henderson par4). Most employers use this as an opportunity to pay low wages because most immigrants do not mind the income as long as they get employment.
On the other hand, immigration has been shown to propagate unemployment in natives. Immigrants take jobs that are supposed to be taken by natives thus lowering their chances of landing decent jobs (Henderson par5). Most immigrants migrate in search of job opportunities. This means that they possess high levels of education and skills that benefit the economy of the host country. They increase competition for available job opportunities. This has prompted many countries to enact stringent immigration policies and laws.
The countries of immigrants suffer brain drain because many of their experienced personnel migrate to other countries that offer better-paying jobs (Shah par8). Many third world countries have numerous highly qualified personnel. However, because these countries cannot offer them well-paying jobs, the qualified personnel decide to relocate to developed countries that offer them high-paying jobs and other amenities. This trend has affected many countries but is expected to decline as the economies of these countries develop.
Gender and immigration
Research has revealed that immigration is easier for men than women. This is because women are restricted by marital and family responsibilities. In addition, women who migrate are disadvantaged because in, many foreign countries, gender discrimination plays a significant role in the labor market (Shah par10). Most employers prefer men to women, especially in manual jobs.
Women benefit from immigration indirectly. Married women get relief because their partners assist them with household chores as they get assimilated into the culture of the natives (Anderson 47). In addition, they earn income from household jobs that are unavailable in their native countries.
Immigration refers to the movement of people into places that are not their native countries. Immigration is caused by economic, social and political constraints, natural disasters and unfavorable climate o weather conditions. Religious persecution and wars are some of the main cause of immigration in third world countries. In developed countries, people migrate to look for social opportunities and different life experiences.
Effects of immigration include competition for jobs and brain drain. Many countries in the Middle East and Africa experience these problems. The rate of immigration has risen in the past and is expected to rise further as more people search for economic and social opportunities.
Anderson, Stuart. Immigration. New York: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.
Henderson, Nell. Effects of Immigration on Jobs, Wages is Difficult for Economists to Nail Down.
Shah, Anup. Immigration. 2008.