United States Political System


The oldest democracy in the world is United State Democracy. This was set up in 1789. At that time all, the features were not as democratic as they are at present. The US is a Federal system. Federal means that the power is divided into two parts- central/national government power and the States power. The national government is known as Federal Government. United State political system can be understand by following parts.

The Constitution

Unlike Britain but like most nation states, the American political system is clearly defined by basic documents. The Constitution was defined in 1789. this was happen after the Independence of United State in 1776. Constitution was defined by the foundations of the United States federal government. This Constitution created the essential structure of the federal government. This paper is there on the display of the National Archives and Records Administration Building in Washington, D.C. There are only 17 amendments in the Constitution. It is very difficult to change the Constitution. The principle ‘separation of powers’ is the heart of the Constitution. According to this principle power is separated between three institutions of government – the executive, the legislature and the judiciary branch.

Legislative Branch, Executive Branch, and Judicial Branch are the three branches of Federal Government.

Legislative branch

The House of Representatives and The Senate are the two parts of the Legislative Branch.

The House of Representatives

The lower chamber (of bicameral legislature) is known as the House of Representatives. It is central part of the federal system. In early 19th century house was used as a primary part to solve the political problems. There are 435 members in the House. A congressional district is represented by each member. Each member is selected for two years.

The Senate

The upper chamber (of bicameral legislature) is known as the Senate. In late 19th century Senate has become the main part of the US Constitution. At present senate is the most powerful upper house of any legislative body in the world. Senate contains 100 members in Senate. Each member serves for 6 years. One third of the senate members are selected in every two years. There are 50 states and each state has 2 Senators. Hence there are 100 senators.

Executive Branch

The President, The Cabinet, and The Federal Departments and Agencies are the parts of Executive Branch.

The President

The President of the United State has many powers than any other political system. President serves for four years. The President is the head of the system. He is the head of state and the head of federal government. He is also the military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat. He can issue orders to affect internal policies.

Judicial Branch

The Supreme Court and Other Federal Courts come into Judicial Branch.

The Supreme Court

There are nine judges in the Supreme Court. One is known as Chief Justice of the United States and remaining eight are known as Associate Justices. Equal weight of voting is provided to them. They are selected by the President. It is confirmed by the ‘advice and consent’ of the Senate. The highest court of the United State is Supreme Court.

Other Federal Courts

There are some other courts also in the United State. There is a system of Courts of Appeal in United State. It comes below the Supreme Court. There are some other courts known as District Courts, which come below the system of Courts of Appeal.


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