Kirpatrick’s Four Levels of Evalution

Kirkpatrick’s four levels of evaluation include;


This level measures the reaction of the person or people involved. In law enforcement practice, this aspect of evaluation can be used to gauge how people would react towards new law enforcement. This would give a clear picture to the stakeholders on the viability of that law. Kirkpatrick (2006) lays emphasis on customer satisfaction.


This level measures the acquired knowledge, skill or desired attitudes over time. It shows if there has been any justifiable improvement after the learning process. In law enforcement, this level would determine if the participants have internalized or are in the process of understanding the enforced law.


At this level, one measures whether the learned habits are being practiced. It is a window to see whether there is any significant change in behavior of the involved parties. This would auger well with determining whether a certain enforced law is being adhered to. This can be seen by the change in behavior pattern of the parties involved.


The fourth and last level measures the outcome of the whole process. At this level, comparison is made between the initial and final stage to determine the success level. If there are no significant changes, then the whole process is considered a failure. In law enforcement this would be determined by examining whether or not a law is being adhered to without question. (Kirkpatrick, 2006)

The Various Consequences of Evaluation

Evaluation involves systematic collection of data which is then analyzed to make informed decisions. It usually involves the systematic process of process, outcome and impact of the result. Evaluation entails that the clear, realistic and measurable objectives are set. There are various results as a result of evaluation. Through evaluation, one is able to determine whether a certain program is viable or not.

One can also determine the problems that could be encountered in administering the programs and come with means of correcting them. Another consequence of evaluation is acquisition of logical information concerning a given phenomenon. Evaluation of outcomes of implementing a given program may give you the direct effects of the programs on participants. Impact evaluation brings out the long term and the unintended program effects (Kirkpatrick, 2006).

Problems That May Occur In Evaluation

There are various problems that may occur when evaluating. This problems are caused by among many other reasons, wrong data collection, poor analysis of collected data, collecting less data than is required and employing the wrong techniques of data collection and analysis among others. Collection of the correct information, knowing which stage of evaluation one is, use the correct data collection tools may be some of the measures that can be taken to counter problems in evaluation (Kirkpatrick, 2006).

Advantages and Disadvantages of Accreditation

Accreditation refers to the approval or acknowledgement of an institution which has met standards of quality set by an accrediting agency. Since this approval is done on behalf of the public, it improves the status and image of an institution. This may result to higher returns and more investments to the accredited institution/s. accreditation are an affirmation that the respective institution provides good quality services or products. Accreditation also leads to more confidence on the part of an organization’s employees. Insurance companies’ confidence is acquired resulting to fewer premiums.

Sometimes it is disadvantageous to be an accredited in institution. The government or other financing institution may fail to see the need to invest more in such an institution due to its self sufficiency. An institution may provide poor services behind the curtain of set standards in a given region. Accreditation should be approached with caution to balance between the advantages and disadvantages (Montagu, 2003).


Kirkpatrick, D.L. (2006). Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels. San Fransisco: Berrett Koehler.

Montagu, D. (2003). Accreditation and Other External Quality Assessment Systems for Healthcare. London, UK: Health Systems Resource Centre.

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