Formerly Incarcerated Individuals’ Reintegration Into Society

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Regardless of multiple attempts to decrease the level of crime and create a safe environment, contemporary society is characterized by a significant number of guilty verdicts. It means that the problem of incarceration and further rehabilitation remains topical. Statistics show that about 2.2 million Americans have been imprisoned in recent years (Yukhnenko et al., 2019). Unfortunately, the recidivism rates also remain significant as, within three years of their release, 66% of people are rearrested and incarcerated again (Yukhnenko et al., 2019). In such a way, there is a need for the in-depth investigation of factors that prevent individuals from rehabilitating and becoming law-obedient community members. In such a way, the following research question is formulated:

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What factors prevent formerly incarcerated individuals from reintegrating into society, successful rehabilitation, and acquiring new skills needed to find a job?

The relevance of the given research question comes from several factors. First, it touches upon a relevant and nagging problem that should be resolved. Second, it has a high practical utility. The enhanced vision of the current barriers might help to find a potent solution guaranteeing that individuals with such problems will have a chance to find their place in communities and avoid committing new crimes. Moreover, the law enforcement sphere has the need for the working tools to work with people after their incarceration and provide them with activities that might help them to rehabilitate. The research question also gives much space for the investigation and using various data collection methods to acquire the needed information. Under these conditions, the choice of the topic and the question is explained by these factors and guarantees high practical utility and applicability of findings.

Literature Review

Article 1

Citation

Moore, K., Milam, K., Folk, J., & Tangney, J. (2018). Self-stigma among criminal offenders: Risk and protective factors. Stigma Health, 3(3), 241-252. Web.

Summary

The study focuses on the investigation of the factors affecting people involved in the functioning of the criminal justice system. Moore et al. (2018) assume that the label “criminals” affect the future life and rehabilitation attempts of individuals and might precondition the development of attitudes and psychological peculiarities producing negative behavioral consequences. In some cases, the existing stereotypes cultivate the emergence of self-stigma, which might be a serious risk factor. Conducting research, the investigators conclude that such mental health symptoms are an important barrier preventing people with incarceration experiences from rehabilitating and reintegrating. Antisocial characteristics traditionally linked to this factor also have multiple adverse effects, while self-esteem might serve as a protective factor for anticipated stigma (Moore et al., 2018). In such a way, it is vital to focus on preventing self-stigma among offenders as a way to minimize recidivism rates.

Reflection

The given research touches upon a significant problem and might be used for discussing barriers affecting formerly incarcerated individuals. The emergence of some mental issues is one of the common aspects peculiar to people who are viewed as criminals. However, the given changes in psychology might have a critical effect on the future life of people and deprive them of chances to avoid committing new crimes. Combined with negative and biased social attitudes, these aspects create a barrier that cannot be overcome by multiple ex-offenders and make them commit new crimes (Moore et al., 2018). Under these conditions, the improved understanding of psychological factors, self-stigma impact, and self-esteem might help to elaborate an effective intervention to assist such individuals in their attempt to become community members and live ordinary lives.

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Article 2

Citation

Pandeli, J., & O’Regan, N. (2020). Risky business? The value of employing offenders and ex-offenders: An interview with James Timpson, chief executive of Timpson. Journal of Management Inquiry, 29(2), 240–247. Web.

Summary

The study analyzes the problem of employment peculiar to ex-offenders and people with incarceration experience. The authors assume that the inability to find a good job and earn money is one of the major factors preconditioning the failure of reintegration attempts and resulting in the increase of recidivism rates (Pandeli & O’Regan, 2020). Under these conditions, organizations become the major actors that can contribute positively to society and employ ex-offenders to ensure the improvement of their status and future success (Pandeli & O’Regan, 2020). Using James Timpson’s insights on working with such people, the researchers conclude that the vulnerability of this group is linked to negative attitudes among people and companies refusing to work with them (Pandeli & O’Regan, 2020). In such a way, it becomes a serious barrier to future success that can be eliminated by creating a workplace culture emphasizing inclusion, empowerment, and cooperation with ex-offenders (Pandeli & O’Regan, 2020). It will help to improve the functioning of communities and decrease recidivism rates.

Reflection

The paper outlines the existence of a solid barrier preventing people with incarceration experiences from becoming community members. The inability to find a job is a severe challenge reducing individuals’ chances of successful reintegration because of the lack of financial support. Moreover, the biased attitude from employers and colleagues might precondition the low effectiveness, inability to perform assigned tasks, and lack of motivation (Pandeli & O’Regan, 2020). Under these conditions, insufficient employment opportunities might be viewed as one of the serious barriers that should be considered when speaking about ex-offenders. It demands a solution such as outlined by James Timpson, presupposing the creation of workplaces with specific cultures (Pandeli & O’Regan, 2020). The power of this intervention is evidenced by the real-life example.

Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1

Self-stigma among formerly incarcerated individuals produces adverse behavioral consequences, reduces people’s chances for reintegration, promotes higher recidivism rates, and complicates rehabilitation.

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The given hypothesis rests on the existing body of evidence. As stated above, Moore et al. (2018) are sure that the emergence of self-stigma among the investigated group is a common phenomenon that is usually linked to a specific experience of incarceration and stereotyped attitude of people. Under these conditions, being affected by society, ex-offenders feel multiple difficulties returning to usual activities and becoming law-obedient members. It should be viewed as a barrier to the improvement of communities’ states, as being bot able to develop high self-esteem, ex-offenders accept their specific place in society and start to act in accordance with stereotypical patterns.

The given hypothesis is linked to the research question formulated above as it touches upon one of the barriers peculiar to the given cohort improves the current understanding of the problem, how it affects society, and should be resolved. To prove or refute the hypothesis, it is vital to collect data from formerly incarcerated individuals to conclude about their current mental health and their visions of their current psychological states. It might presuppose interviews or surveys as a data collection tool. In general, the given hypothesis touches upon the psychological aspect of the research question and focuses on attitudes and stereotypes usually associated with individuals labeled as “criminals.” Discussing the given hypothesis, it is possible to improve the current understanding of this sphere and ensure that the proposed solution will include the psychological aspect as one of the factors having a serious effect on the future success of this group.

Hypothesis 2

The inability to find a job and earn money because of the biased attitude is a significant barrier limiting formerly incarcerated people in their opportunities to reintegrate.

The given hypothesis touches upon another aspect of the formulated research question. Along with multiple psychological barriers, some other factors influence individuals from this group and their future life. Thus, the ability to find a good job is one of the major determinants of successful reintegration as a person acquires a stable source of income, and the chances that he/she will be involved in new crimes reduces. Unfortunately, the existing stereotypes and poor understanding of the psychology of such people precondition the creation of specific employment practices and atmosphere in workplaces (Pandeli & O’Regan, 2020). It means that organizations are unwilling to work with ex-offenders and prefer to devote attention to other specialists. Under these conditions, consideration of the given hypothesis is vital for the generation of the improved vision of the issue and the creation of the appropriate solution to it.

Moreover, the hypothesis is linked to the first statement and the research question. It means that the research will benefit from using the two assumptions related to two various aspects of ex-offenders’ experience and their attempts to reintegrate with society. Similar research methods, such as surveys and interviews, can be employed to collect data needed to prove or refute the hypothesis. Under these conditions, its formulation is justified by the nature of the research, its goals, and the need to improve the current understanding of the issue to create the working and effective solution needed to improve the quality of people’s lives and ensure they belong to a community.

References

Moore, K., Milam, K., Folk, J., & Tangney, J. (2018). Self-stigma among criminal offenders: Risk and protective factors. Stigma Health, 3(3), 241-252. Web.

Pandeli, J., & O’Regan, N. (2020). Risky business? The value of employing offenders and ex-offenders: An interview with James Timpson, chief executive of Timpson. Journal of Management Inquiry, 29(2), 240–247. Web.

Yukhnenko, D., Sridhar, S., & Seena, F. (2019). A systematic review of criminal recidivism rates worldwide: 3-year update. Wellcome Open Research, 4, 29. Web.

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DemoEssays. (2022, June 25). Formerly Incarcerated Individuals' Reintegration Into Society. Retrieved from https://demoessays.com/formerly-incarcerated-individuals-reintegration-into-society/

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DemoEssays. (2022, June 25). Formerly Incarcerated Individuals' Reintegration Into Society. https://demoessays.com/formerly-incarcerated-individuals-reintegration-into-society/

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"Formerly Incarcerated Individuals' Reintegration Into Society." DemoEssays, 25 June 2022, demoessays.com/formerly-incarcerated-individuals-reintegration-into-society/.

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DemoEssays. (2022) 'Formerly Incarcerated Individuals' Reintegration Into Society'. 25 June.

References

DemoEssays. 2022. "Formerly Incarcerated Individuals' Reintegration Into Society." June 25, 2022. https://demoessays.com/formerly-incarcerated-individuals-reintegration-into-society/.

1. DemoEssays. "Formerly Incarcerated Individuals' Reintegration Into Society." June 25, 2022. https://demoessays.com/formerly-incarcerated-individuals-reintegration-into-society/.


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DemoEssays. "Formerly Incarcerated Individuals' Reintegration Into Society." June 25, 2022. https://demoessays.com/formerly-incarcerated-individuals-reintegration-into-society/.